Curriculum and Assessment

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David Scott
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001 - Education - 190 pages
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Curriculum and Assessment is the first volume of a new series International Perspectives on Curriculum. This edited book examines the relationship between curriculum, pedagogy and assessment, and, as with subsequent volumes, adopts a cross-sector and comparative approach. Contributors make reference to a number of important debates in the fields of curriculum and assessment: summative versus formative assessment; differentiation versus inclusion; psychometric versus holistic theorising; decontextualised versus contextualised assessment; symbol-processing versus situated learning approaches; integrated versus connected assessment; and high stakes versus low stakes assessment. The rationale for this volume is not to reach an agreement about assessment and curriculum frameworks, but to air the various debates referred to above and develop new frameworks for understanding these important issues.

This volume and the series is timely as administrators and policy-makers in different parts of the world have taken an increased interest in education, and as moves to centralise curriculum provision have gathered pace. This has in some cases driven a wedge between curriculum theory and curriculum practice, as policy-makers have developed and implemented proposals without referring to academic debates about these issues. It therefore is an important task to reassert the need to discuss and debate the curriculum in a critical manner before implementation occurs. This volume sets about that task, addressing policy-makers, administrators, teachers and the research community.

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Contents

Introduction
1
Formative Assessment and Curriculum Consequences
7
Differentiation and Assessment Mary Simpson
25
Pupil Assessment and Classroom Culture A Comparative Study of the Language of Assessment in England and France
41
Portfolio Assessment in Teacher Education
63
Examination Techniques Issues of Validity and Effects on Pupils Performance
83
Professional Doctorates and Assessment Issues
105
Scottish Perspectives on the Curriculum and Assessment
119
Conceptual Frameworks to Accommodate the Validation of Rapidly Changing Requirements for Assessments
143
An Overview of the Relationship Between Assessment and the Curriculum
165
Index
183
About the Editor and Contributors
187
Copyright

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Page 76 - Active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends constitutes reflective thought.
Page 8 - Curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice...
Page 78 - Shulman's observation, that portfolios 'retain almost uniquely the potential for documenting the unfolding of both teaching and learning over time and combining that documentation with opportunities for teachers to engage in the analysis of what they and their students have done'.
Page 84 - The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures, and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor (Campbell 1975).
Page 14 - The most important contribution ... is the insight that all learning involves thinking. It is incorrect to believe, according to old learning theory, that the basics can be taught by rote followed by thinking and reasoning. As documented by the Resnicks, even comprehension of simple texts requires a process of inferring and thinking about what the text means. Children who are drilled in number facts, algorithms, decoding skills or vocabulary lists without developing a basic conceptual model or seeing...
Page 11 - Marking is usually conscientious but often fails to offer guidance on how work can be improved. In a significant minority of cases, marking reinforces under-achievement and under-expectation by being too generous or unfocused.
Page 77 - ... (1) a state of doubt, hesitation, perplexity, mental difficulty, in which thinking originates, and (2) an act of searching, hunting, inquiring, to find material that will resolve the doubt, settle and dispose of the perplexity.
Page 25 - The curriculum has to satisfy two seemingly contrary requirements. On the one hand it has to reflect the broad aims of education which hold good for all children, whatever their capabilities and whatever the schools they attend.
Page 70 - A key premise is that for students to be able to improve, they must develop the capacity to monitor the quality of their own work during actual production. This in turn requires that students possess an appreciation of what high quality work is, that they have the evaluative skill necessary for them to compare with some objectivity the quality of what they are producing in relation to the higher standard, and that they develop a store of tactics or moves which can be drawn upon to modify their own...
Page 25 - Schofield, all the schoolteachers, drudging unwillingly at the graceless task of compelling many children into one disciplined, mechanical set, reducing the whole set to an automatic state of obedience and attention, and then of commanding their acceptance of various pieces of knowledge.

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About the author (2001)

DAVID SCOTT is a Senior Lecturer in the Centre for Curriculum and Teaching Studies at the Open University in the United Kingdom. He has published widely in the fields of curriculum, assessment and research methodology. His most recent books include Reading Educational Research and Literacy, Realism and Educational Research: New Perspectives and Possibilities and (with Robin Usher) Researching Education. Data, Methods and Theory in Educational Enquiry. He is the current editor of The Curriculum Journal.

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