Indentured Labor in the Age of Imperialism, 1834-1922
The indentured labour trade was begun to replace freed slaves on sugar plantations in British colonies in the 1830s, but expanded to many other locations around the world. This is the first survey of the global flow of indentured migrants from Africa that developed after the end of the slave trade and continued until shortly after the First World War. This volume describes the experiences of the two million Asians, Africans, and South Pacific Islanders who signed long-term labour contracts in return for free passage overseas, modest wages, and other benefits. The experience of these indentured migrants of different origins and destinations is compared in terms of their motives, conditions of travel, and subsequent creation of permanent overseas settlements.
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African America arrival Asia Asian average became British Guiana British West Indies Calcutta Cambridge capital Caribbean changes Chapter China Chinese Laborers circumstances colonies Commission common continued contract Coolie costs Cuba deaths decades destinations early East economic effectively emancipation Emigration employers European example experience factor Figure Fiji forced French growing Hawaii History Immigration important indentured Indian indentured labor indentured labor trade indentured migrants Indian Indian migrants individuals Industry International Introduction of Chinese Jamaica Japanese Journal land larger less liberated London Mauritius Meagher migrants month mortality Natal nineteenth century Ocean officials overseas Oxford Pacific islanders passage passengers percent period persons Peru plantation planters political population production rates recruitment regulations Report ships Shlomowitz similar slave trade slavery social Source South Studies sugar supply System of Slavery Table thousand tion tons Trinidad University Press voyages wages women World York