Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 11

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G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1977 - Religion - 615 pages
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This multivolume work is still proving to be as fundamental to Old Testament studies as its companion set, the Kittel-Friedrich Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, has been to New Testament studies.

Beginning with 'ābh ('āb), "father,” and continuing through the alphabet, the TDOT volumes present in-depth discussions of the key Hebrew and Aramaic words in the Old Testament. Leading scholars of various religious traditions (including Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, Greek Orthodox, and Jewish) and from many parts of the world (Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) have been carefully selected for each article by editors Botterweck, Ringgren, and Fabry and their consultants, George W. Anderson, Henri Cazelles, David Noel Freedman, Shemaryahu Talmon, and Gerhard Wallis.

The intention of the writers is to concentrate on meaning, starting from the more general, everyday senses and building to an understanding of theologically significant concepts. To avoid artificially restricting the focus of the articles, TDOT considers under each keyword the larger groups of words that are related linguistically or semantically. The lexical work includes detailed surveys of a word’s occurrences, not only in biblical material but also in other ancient Near Eastern writings. Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian, Ethiopic, Ugaritic, and Northwest Semitic sources are surveyed, among others, as well as the Qumran texts and the Septuagint; and in cultures where no cognate word exists, the authors often consider cognate ideas.

TDOT’s emphasis, though, is on Hebrew terminology and on biblical usage. The contributors employ philology as well as form-critical and traditio-historical methods, with the aim of understanding the religious statements in the Old Testament. Extensive bibliographical information adds to the value of this reference work.

This English edition attempts to serve the needs of Old Testament students without the linguistic background of more advanced scholars; it does so, however, without sacrificing the needs of the latter. Ancient scripts (Hebrew, Greek, etc.) are regularly transliterated in a readable way, and meanings of foreign words are given in many cases where the meanings might be obvious to advanced scholars. Where the Hebrew text versification differs from that of English Bibles, the English verse appears in parentheses. Such features will help all earnest students of the Bible to avail themselves of the manifold theological insights contained in this monumental work.

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W azar It5 7 ozer 1t? ezer H1t? endrnj? zard TfJ? azfzV
taalldeal with Roth Fabry
IslamHaSfP taalumd be hidden Locher
alma 0y elem young woman Dohmen Ringgren
TOS7 amad 7a3? omed rHa5? emda 7a3?D mamad 7D5?a momad
TTHy ammCid pillar Freedman Willoughby Fabry 1 87
CpDg mamaqqim valley Beyse
Tjy andn cloud Freedman Willoughby Fabry
ptyy VUag pBW dse pt eseo HpUj3? afyd pW3? dsdq WyfVSV
ninty im CaStoretu nnritp asteret nirw? aStarot 7ijnt?
liny attud goat Maiberger
iriy atar 1n atar entreat Gerstenberger
1SD pr r1KDri tiperet 1KS peer glory Hausmann
i?JD pdga VS9 pega VJDa mipga strike hit Maiberger
DS pei mouth GarciaLopez
mS pwi blow Reiterer

D?y asab 31?y eseb 3X5? oseb 3X5? asefc 113X3? issdbon r3X5?
2?y asam D1XS dsdm DX5? osem HDX3? osmd n1aX5?ri tasumot
DXX? esem DX5? osem bone Beyse
l?y aw IX5? efer 1X5? oser rms? Vrf rPX3? wd niX3?a
Tj?y aaar 1p3? aqar 1p5? eger 1j?5? iqqdr uproot Fabry
pervert Warmuth
21V IIIII o IIIII yyt I erefc I an? II ereb II an? ardi
my aram DllS arum HDI?? arma crafty Niehr
fiy aras flS Ms HX1ya marasd fnS arcis terrify terror
IIS pai trap snare D Kellermann
nrlS pahat pit Mulder
KVD pV KV5i pete be marvelous Conrad
ttpB paa D?D maa palit BC1?? paef nDCV? peletd DpD
?TD p nDn fepiVd DV?9 pfttton H17?9 pTdd ??9 pefi rp??9
H39 pdd turn Schreiner
H35 pmnd corner Oeming

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Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 486 - brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you from the house of slavery, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.
Page 91 - Yahweh kills and brings to life; he brings down to Sheol and raises up. Yahweh makes poor and makes rich; he brings low and also exalts
Page 223 - Yahweh — I will answer the heavens, and they shall answer the earth; and the earth shall answer the grain, the wine, and the oil, and they shall answer Jezreel.
Page 274 - if not, let fire come out of the bramble and devour the cedars of Lebanon
Page 564 - of the house of Judah shall again take root downward and bear fruit upward. For from Jerusalem a remnant
Page 140 - Is not the gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim better than the vintage of Abiezer?
Page 244 - Render true judgments, show kindness and mercy to one another; do not oppress the widow, the orphan, the alien, or the poor; and do not devise evil in your hearts against one another.
Page 449 - to the wise, nor riches to the intelligent, nor favor to the skillful; but time and chance happen to them all
Page 250 - therefore he instructs sinners in the way. He leads the humble in what is right, and teaches the humble his way
Page 274 - I Yahweh bring low the high tree and make high the low tree, dry up the green tree and make the dry tree flourish.

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About the author (1977)

G. Johannes Botterweck (1917-1981) was professor of Old Testament and Catholic theology at the University of Bonn, Germany.

Helmer Ringgren (1917-2012) was professor of Old Testament interpretation at the University of Uppsala, Sweden.

Heinz-Josef Fabry is professor of Old Testament at the University of Bonn, Germany.

Head librarian at The General Theological Seminary in New York City.

Bibliographic information