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1849.]

New Moral and Political Treatises in France.

199

a commission to carry the plan into effect, composed of MM. Cousin, de Beaumont (afterwards replaced by de Tocqueville), Troplong, Blanqui, and Thiers. M. Blanqui was sent to the manufacturing cities of Marseilles, Lyons, Rouen, and Lille, to investigate the moral and physical condition of the working population. A series of publications was also commenced, to be issued by Didot, in nunibers of from 60 to 100 pages, and sold at 40 centimes each. The first of these is by Cousin, upon Justice and Charity-showing that these are the two pillars of all social order, that neither is right without the other. He traces moet of the false systems of morals and politics to the exclusive reliance upon one of these elements. He applies these principles, with skill and clearness, to many of the questions of the 'times. The second treatise is on Property, according to the Civil Code, by M. Troplong. The tendency of a true democracy is asserted to be, the confirmation of the right to property. Despotic and aristocratic societies alter the rightful conditions of property; but the merit of democracy is that it respects and guards all the natural rights of men, and all that man obtains in the use of these rights. “Liberty is necessary to acquire property; equality makes it sacred.” The foundation of the right of property, the different theories respecting it, are ably discussed. It is interesting to notice the tribute paid to the merits of Locke and Reid, in the course of this treatise. The third number is on the Causes of the Inequality of Riches, by M. Hippolyte Passy, who has recently been made Minister of Finance by the new President of the Republic. These are all the treatises we have seen. posed to treat of the family and its organization ; of the condition of the different classes of society; and of the main points in social economy. All these tracts are written in an enlightened and philosophical spirit, yet in an eminently practical manner. They seem well adapted to carry into effect the aphorism with which the Introduction ends : “ The first right of a people is the right to the truth."

Under the same auspices we also have some 25 pages of “ Popular Philosophy, by Victor Cousin,” as a preface to the republication of the first part of Rousseau's Coufession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar. Cousin sets this Confession over against the Social Contract. In this Popular Philosophy, he lays down his own confession, in clearer terms than he has ever before done, of his faith in the freedom, the spirituality, and the immortality of man, in the supremacy of the moral law, in the being and moral attributes of God, in the necessity of obedience to conscience, and of a religious life. The contrast between such a series of publications, and those which were published in the era of the first Republic, is signal and auspicious.

It is also proCommentar über den ersten Brief Pauli au die Korinthier, von J. G.

Osiander. Dekan in Göppingen. pp. 830. Stuttgard, 1847.

The most recent Commentaries on the First Epistle to the Corinthians are those of De Wette and Meyer, in their Manuals, Heydenreich, Flatt, Olshausen, Billroth, and Rückert. Special topics have been discussed by Baur, Schenkel, Dähne, Goldhorn, Becker, and others. Osiander has been well known, for some years, as an acute and learned theologian, partly by his Apology for the Life of Jesus, in opposition to Strauss. The Commentary on the First Epistle to the Corinthians is said to be the fruit of many years' study. “We here meet," says Kling, “ with a beautiful and rare combination of the theological and philological element, a copiousness of learning, a solid and fine grammatical culture on the principles of Buttmann, Kühner, Lobeck, Hermann, Winer, etc., a true use of the materials which the ancient, the modern, and the most recent interpreters have furnished,” etc. His position is that of a decided believer in inspiration.

Wilhelm Gesenius' Hebräische Grammatik. Neu bearbeitet und herausgege

ben von E. Rödiger. Funfzehnte Auflage, Leipzig, 1848. pp. 316.

We give the editor's Preface to this Fifteenth edition : " In the midst of the pressure of great political events, in which, unquestionably, the day of freedom for our German father-land dawns, I do not find an inclination to multiply words, in order to introduce a scientific work, completed under the roof of a dull, peaceful repose, to a Public absorbed with higher struggles and cares. I content myself with saying that, in this new revision of a book, whose usefulness has been sufficiently proved by the rapid exhaustion of an extraordinarily large edition in the form which I gave it, I have been at the pains to make it more worthy of the favorable reception which it has found. Throughout the book, individual improvements and additions will be found ; so that, with all the saving of type, the number of pages in this edition has been somewhat enlarged. More important alterations have been made, e. g. in $$ 21, 40, 41, 44, 49, 52, 68, 86, 117, 145.” The 14th edition contained 303 pages. In the paper and printing the last edition shows decided improvement.

Biblical Hebraica, nunc denuo recognita et emendata ab Isaaco Leeser, V.

D. M. synagogae Mickve Israel, Phila. et Josepho Ja V. D. M. Presbyter Prot. Epis. Ecd. U. S. Novi Eboraci. Sumptibus Joannis Wiley, 1849, 8vo.

1416. This Bible is designed to be an exact reprint of Hahn's edition. Much 1849.]

pp.

Hoare's Apocalypse -Adler's Dictionary.

201

pains appear to have been expended by the editors in collating it with the editions of Athias, Van der Hooght, Vatablus and Opitius, and with the various readings of Kennicott and De Rossi. In securing typographical correctness, careful use has also been made of the labors of W. Heidenheim, who published very accurate editions of the Pentateuch, Psalms, and fragments of other portions of the Bible. How far this edition is free from errors can of course only be determined by time and careful examination. The bringing out in this country of so handsome an edition of the entire Old Testament, edited apparently with so much care, and accuracy, is certainly an honor to the publisher, to the editors, and the country. The type is large and distinct, and the appearance of the page is grateful to the eye. In the copies which we have examined, the paper is so thin that the impression of the type is seen on the opposite page. This fault can be rectified, as the work is stereotyped. The price of the volume is three dollars. We hope that the undertaking will be liberally remunerated.

The Harmony of the Apocalypse with other Prophecies of Holy Scripture.

With Notes and an Outline of lhe Various Interpretations. By the Rev. Willinm Henry Hoare, late fellow of St.John's College, Cambridge. Lon. don. John W. Parker, 1848, 8vo. pp. 227.

“ The text of the Apocalypse is placed in one column-and in another a combination of passages from other parts of Scripture most nearly agreeing with it, both in expression and in subject-matter; — and thus forming a kind of Scripture Paraphrase to this book." Explanatory notes are added at the bottom of the page, and in ten brief appendices various matters are discussed. The author speaks very respectfully of the Commentary of Prof. Stuart. The great political events of the times seem to have given a fresh impulse to the study of the prophetical Scriptures in England.

A Dictionary of the German and English Languages. Compiled from the

works of Hilpert, Flügel, Grieb, Heyse, and others. By G. J. Adler, M. A., Professor of German in the New York University, D. Appleton & Co., 1849, 18vo. pp. 1162.

This Dictionary is printed with unconmon care and taste. The paper is fair, and the type and the arrangement of the articles are such as to strike the eye pleasantly. The book, too, is apparently printed with great accuracy. The German and English part occupies 840 pages, and the English and German 522. This preponderance of the German portion over the English is a great advantage. Indeed, we could wish that the English part were eptirely excluded, and its place supplied with

more copious explanations and illustrations of the difficult German forms and phrases. A valuable peculiarity of this Dictionary is that several hundred German synonyms are explained. There are also an alphabetical list of the irregular verbs, and a full dictionary of German abbreviations. Many scientific and technical terins have been incorporated. Though we have not been able to test the merits of this dictionary by practical use, yet it appears to have been prepared with conscientious fidelity, and with an intelligent appreciation of the wants of the multitudes now studying this noble language.

Among the interesting books in press or in process of preparation in Germany, are the Life of Schleiermacher, by Dr. Jonas, of Berlin ; some supplementary numbers to Winer's Bible Dictionary, containing drawings, illustrations, etc.; the concluding parts of De Wette's Manual, embracing the epistles of James, Peter, Jude, and the Apocalypse ; a New Testament Lexicon, by Dr. Winer; the concluding number, long promised, of Gesenius's Hebrew Thesaurus, by Rödiger; the continuation of the excellent Critico-Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, by Dr. H. A. W. Meyer, of Hanover, (the last volume being on the Epistle to the Ephesians, and the second edition of the first volumes extending to the Acts ;) the conclusion of Becker's Manual of Roman Antiquities; the 3d volume of Brandis's History of Greek and Roman Philosophy, and the second of K. F. Hermann's History of the Platonic Philosophy; etc.

Public LIBRARIES. The number of public libraries in Europe is stated at 383; of these, 107 are in France, 41 in Austria, 30 in Prussia, 28 in Great Britain, 17 in Spain, 15 in the Papal States, 14 in Belgium, 13 in Switzerland, 12 in Russia, 11 in Bavaria, 9 in Tuscany, 9 in Sardinia, 8 in Sweden, 7 in Naples, 7 in Portugal, and the others in the remaining States, The number of volumes in the libraries of the chief European cities, compared with each 100 of the respective population, is as follows:

Weimar, 800 Munich, 750 Darınstadt, 652 Copenhagen, 465 Stuttgard,

452 Dresden, 432 Hanover,

335 Florence, 313 Rome, 306

Parma,
Prague,
Berlin,
Madrid,
Paris,
Venice,
Milan,
Vienna,

278
168
162
152
143
142
135
119

Edinburgh,
Petersburgh,
Brussels,
Stockholm,
Naples,
Dublin,
Lisbon,
London,

116 108 100 98 69 49 39 20

Publishing Statistics. By the publication of the “Catalogue of Books published in Great Britain during the Year 1847," and by other informa1849.]

Publishing Statistics in Great Britain.

203

tion, derivable from the Publishers' Circular, the following statistical information is obtained as the result of the printing and publishing speculations during the year; but it is necessary to observe that many books, old and new, are from time to time reprinted, of which reprints no authentic information is obtainable. This being the first attempt at any such statistics, there is no doubt the system may, in future years, be improved upon and enlarged, and therefore be usefully applied. There have been published, during the year,

3414 new works, the advertised selling price of which amounts to£1135 579 new editions,

200

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£1335

These comprise 4251 vols., of which 56 are folio, 135 quarto, 162 imperial and royal 8vo, 1320 demy 8vo, 310 post 8vo, 2010 12mo et infra ; containing, altogether, nearly one million and fifty thousand pages, exclusive of numerous illustrations on steel, copper, wood, stone, etc. 135 of these works are printed in Scotland, and 64 in Ireland. 482 are Pamphlets; and 102 single Sermons, Charges, etc.; but Periodicals, Law Reports, Reviews, Magazines, and Newspapers, are not acknowledged.

Nineveh and its Remains, with the accompanying Monuments, 100 plates, folio, by Austin H. Layard, the 5th and 6th volumes of Grote's History of Greece, and the 4th and 5th volumes of the new edition of Thirlwall's Greece are published.

The following are among the more recent theological and classical publications in the United States, and works now in press :

Rational Psychology; or the Subjective Idea and the Objective Law of all Intelligence. By Laurens P. Hickok, D. D., Professor of Christian Theology in the Theological Seminary of Auburn, N. Y. Derby, Miller & Co., Auburn, 1849. 8vo. pp. 717.

A First Book in Greek; containing a full view of the forms of words, with Vocabularies and copious Exercises, on the Method of constant Imitation and Repetition. By Joho M'Clintock, D. D., Prof. of Languages, and George R. Crooks, M. A., Assistant Professor of Languages in Dickinson College, Pa. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1848. 18mo. pp. 315.

Man: his Constitution and Primitive Condition, by John Harris, D. D. Boston, Gould, Kendall & Lincoln.

Hours of Christian Devotion, by A. Tholuck, translated by Rev. William Hall, 1 vol. 8vo.

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