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Proceedings of the Royal Society

Messrs. F. Tiemann and W. Haarmann on Coniferine,

and its conversion into the Aromatic Principle of



Mr. R. Mallet on the alleged Expansion in Volume of

various Substances in passing by Refrigeration from

the state of Liquid Fusion to that of Solidification 231

Mr. J. N. Lockyer on the Absorption of great Thick-

nesses of Metallic and Metalloidal Vapours


Mr. J. N. Lockyer on the Evidence of Variation in Mo

lecular Structure


Proceedings of the Geological Society :

Principal Dawson on the Upper Coal-Formation of East-

ern Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in its rela-

tion to the Permian


Mr. J.G. Goodchild on the Carboniferous Conglomerates

of the eastern part of the Basin of the Eden ........ 238

Mr. R. Mortimer on a Well-section in the Chalk at the

North end of Driffield, Eust Yorkshire

... 239

Dr. O. Ward on Slickensides or Rock-striations, particu-

larly those of the Chalk


Mr. J. F. Campbell on Polar Glaciation .


Dr. F. Stoliczka on the occurrence of Jade in the Kara-

kash Valley, on the southern borders of Turkestan 240

Mr. F. G. H. Price on the Gault of Folkesione ..... 240

Mr. C. J. A. Meyer on the Cretaceous Rocks of Beer

Head and the adjacent Cliff-sections ; and on the rela-

tive Horizons therein of the Warminster and Black-

down Fossiliferous deposits ...


Mr. H. G. Seeley on some of the Generic Modifications of

the Plesiosaurian Pectoral Girdle


Mr. H. G. Seeley on Murænosaurus Leedsii (Seeley), a

Plesiosaurian from the Oxford Clay.—Part I.


Mr. L. C. Miall on the remains of Labyrinthodonta from

the Keuper Sandstone of Warwick, preserved in the

Warwick Museum


On Magnetism, by A. Trève


On a New Electromagnet, formed of Concentric Tubes of Iron

separated by Layers of Conducting Wire, by J. Camacho.. 244

On the Experimental Determination of Diamagnetism by its

Electrical Inductive Action, by Prof. A. Toepler, of Gratz. 246


Mr. F. Guthrie on Salt Solutions and Attached Water 266

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Dr. H. F. Weber on the Specific Heat of the Elements Carbon,

Boron, and Silicon.-Part I. The Relation between the

Specific Heat of these Elements in the free state and the



Mr. C. Tomlinson on the Action of Solids in liberating Gas

from Solution


Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher on Partitions


Lord Rayleigh on the Work that may be gained during the

Mixing of Gases


Notices respecting New Books :-

Mr. B. Williamson's Elementary Treatise on the Integral

Calculus, containing Applications to Plane Curves and

Surfaces, with numerous Examples ...


Proceedings of the Royal Society :-

Mr. J. N. Lockyer on the Molecular Structure of Vapours

in connexion with their Densities


Mr. J. N. Lockyer on a new Class of Absorption Pheno-


Mr. J. N. Lockyer's Researches in Spectrum-Analysis in

connexion with the Spectrum of the Sun


Procedings of the Geological Society :-

Mr. T. F.Jamieson on the last Stage of the Glacial Period

in North Britain


The Rev. T. G. Bonney on the Upper Engadine and the

Italian Valleys of Monte Rosa


Mr. W. Whitaker on the occurrence of Thanet beds and

of Crag at Sudbury, Suffolk


Mr. J. W. Hulke on a Dinosaurian ilium indicative of

a new genus, or possibly of a new order of Reptiles .. 328

Mr. J. W. Hulke on a Reptilian Tibia and Humerus from

the Wealden Formation in the Isle of Wight


On the Magnetizing-function of Tempered Steel, by E. Bouty. 329

On the dependence of the Coefficient of Friction of Atmo-

spheric Air on Temperature, by Albert von Obermayer, Cap-

tain of Artillery ....


On Camacho's New Electromagnet, by R. S. Culley, Esq. 332


I. II, Illustrative of Mr. Piazzi Smyth's Paper on Carbon and Hydro-

carbon in the Modern Spectroscope.

IIJ, IV. V. VI. Illustrative of Mr. J. Rand Capron's Paper on the Com-

parison of some Tube and other Spectra with the Spectrum of

the Aurora.

VII. Illustrative of Dr. H. F. Weber's Paper on the Specific Heat of the

Elements Carbon, Boron, and Silicon.

VIII. Illustrative of Prof. G. C. Foster's Paper on Graphical Methods of

solving certain simple Electrical Problems.
IX. X. Illustrative of Messrs. G. C. Foster and 0. J. Lodge's Paper on

the Flow of Electricity in a uniform plane conducting Surface.

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1. On Salt Solutions and Attached Water.

§ 1. THE interesting paper read to the Physical Society of

London by Dr. J. Rae, the arctic explorer, on the
comparative saltness of freshly formed and older ice-floest, in-
duced me to examine some of the physical properties of brine
and some other of the aqueous solutions of the salts of the sea.
This examination has extended itself to some other salls; for
before attacking the problem of the freezing of sea-water, the
composition of which may be little less complex than that of the
earth itself, it seemed advisable to enrich our knowledge of the
properties of the solutions of some of its more abundant consti-
tuents in the separate form. Some of the experimental results
unexpectedly opened so wide and fascinating a field of inquiry,
that I have been compelled to make some sort of survey of it ;
and though the results there gathered are of sufficient interest
to be considered by themselves as physical facts, they will assu-
redly also be concerned in the establishment of a sufficient
theory of thalattology.

Chloride of Sodium.
§ 2. Being fortunately in possession of a large quantity of
extremely pure rock-salt in fine crystals, I satisfied myself by
the spectroscope of the absence of potassiumn and lithium. By
the usual tests, magnesium and sulphuric acid were also shown
to be absent. A determination of the chlorine agreed so closely
with the theoretical quantity that not more than 0.2 per cent.

* Read before the Physical Society, November 7, 1874. Communicated
by the Society.

† Proc. Phys. Soc. May 9, 1874. Phil. Mag. July 1874, p. 56.
Phil. Mag. S. 4. Vol. 49. No. 322. Jan. 1875.


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