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nished room—under these conditions only did I carry out my research on the spectrum of carbon. The absence of Plates and measurements in my paper is not".... explained (in a memoir crowned by being printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London) by its one chief burden (viz. putting pure carbon vapour for hydrocarbon) having been grateful to the then already formed prejudices of the secret committee who passed it,” but by the fact stated in my paper, that Professor Swan had already measured and recorded, confessedly with great accuracy, the position of the lines of the spectrum (observed by him in hydrocarbon flames*).
Spectral analysis brings to light marvellously minute traces of matter, traces difficult to remove even from the surfaces of apparatus, and still more difficult to extract from large volumes of other matter. Have I overlooked traces of hydrocarbons in some of my flames and tubes ? Scarcely; for I adopted all precautions known to chemists to obtain chemical purity and cleanliness. Again, other chemists, armed with prejudice against my conclusions, have ended by confirming those conclusions. Still here perhaps is room for sound original investigation; something new could hardly fail to be discovered by eyes trained to observe. Is it too much to expect that a gentleman occupying so high a position as Mr. Piazzi Smyth will either support his statements by such sound evidence or withdraw them altogethert ?
XV. On the General Theory of Duplex Telegraphy.
By Louis SCHWENDLERI.
[Continued from vol. xlviii. p. 138.] THE first part of this investigation concluded by giving
(Phil. Mag. vol. xlviii. p. 138) the best relations between * Had so good an observer as Swan worked, instead of the writer, in 1862, with the light just then shed on spectroscopy, I am sure he would have looked for the spectrum in flames not containing hydrogen, and would thus have discovered what I discoved, the spectrum of carbon.—J. A.
† The tone of Mr. Piazzi Smyth's communication renders desirable on my part an expression of regret that my duties in the department of chemistry to which I was appointed within a month of the publication of my research on the spectrum of carbon, have quite prevented me from carrying on similar researches. That regret is much tempered, however, by my belief that such work would have been done far less efficiently by me than by men like Plücker, Morren, Lielegg, Troost and Hautefeuille, and Marshall Watts. I am obliged to add that nevertheless my labours, from the promotion of original investigation in other directions, have neither been few nor unsuccessful. This is the only notice I can take of the personalities in Mr. Piazzi Smyth's paper.-J. A.
| From the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xliii. part 2, 1874 (read on the 4th of February, 1874). Communicated by the Author.
the resistances of the different branches of the bridge arrangement—under the limiting supposition, however, that the line used for duplex working was perfect in insulation, or, more generally, that the real conduction-resistance of the line could be neglected against the resistance of the resultant fault*.
It now remains, therefore, to investigate if the simple relations given are generally true; or if not, what they become in case the line has an appreciable leakage. In fact this is clearly the case of practical importance; since all overland lines, especially long ones, even if constructed on the best known principles, will always have a very considerable leakage; i.e. the resistance of the resultant fault (i) will generally be by no means very large in proportion to the real conduction-resistance (L) of the line.
In order to obtain the best general solution of the problem, we must conduct the investigation with great caution; that is, we must be careful not to introduce beforehand any relation between the different variables, however convenient, that is not necessarily a consequence of the paramount condition to be fulfilled for duplex telegraphy, i. e. regularity of signals.
Thus it will be seen that the present general investigation must be conducted somewhat differently from the special one given in the First Part.
It must, however, be understood from the beginning that, whatever the best relations may be which should exist between the different resistances of the bridge method when used on an imperfect line, these relations must revert to the special one given before if we put i=00; and this fact affords a certain check upon the correctness of the new relations to be found.
General solution of the first problem for the Bridge Method.
The annexed diagram (p. 110) represents the general case; and to it therefore I shall refer in the present paper.
The general mathematical question which is to be solved for duplex telegraphy has been stated as follows:
REGULARITY OF SIGNALS.-D and S are two functions which must be rigidly equal to zero when no variation in the system occurs —and which for any given variation in the system must be as small as possible, and approximate rapidly towards zero as the variation in the system becomes smaller and smaller.
Further, these two functions D and S were expressed, say for station I., as follows ::
E'N 1 A
(III.) For a definition of the terms “ resultant fault," “ real conduction," “measured conduction,” “real insulation,” “ measured insulation,” &c., which will be of frequent occurrence in this paper, see my 'Testing Instructions,' Part II. Section I.
matter, traces difficult to remove even from the surfaces of apy
tions known to chemists to obtain chemical purity and de
XV. On the General Theory of Duplex Telegrafi
By Louis SCHWENDLERI.
Continued from vol. xlvii. p. 138.)
(Phil. Mag. vol. xlviii. p. 138) the best relaties
+ The tone of Mr. Piazzi Smyth's communication renden my part an expression of regret that my duties in the deg mistry to which I was appointed within a month of the research on the spectrum of carbon, have quite
prevented on similar researches. That regret is much tempered,
that such work would have been done far less effe
carry out my e of Plates and ed (in a memi ansactions of t eden viz. port is been grateful cret committer paper, that Pa confessedly wc. spectrum ober
the resistances of the different branches of the bridge arrangement—under the limiting supposition, however, that the lite used for duplex working was perfect in insulation, or, more geserally, that the real conduction-resistance of the line could be noge lected against the resistance of the resultant fault.
It now remains, therefore, to investigate if the ope reis. tions given are generally true; or if not, what they become a case the line has an appreciable leakage. In fact art the case of practical importance ; since all overland 18, este ally long ones, even if constructed on the best kons; will always have a very considerable leakage; i.e. the fiscales
La of the resultant fault (7) will generally be by no means they are in
In order to obtain the best general scisci de priem, from the surie proportion to the real conduction-resistance
Lt must be careful not to introduce betsenzi ni za aces of hydrocarbon e bust conduct the investigation to get 121.18
pen the different variables, boterer 0721LE $ 116 essarily a consequence of the paramoist anna eind for duplex telegraphy, i.e. regularity of path.a.
hus it will be seen that the present renenti mumkan riginal investiga be conducted somewhat differently to the in the First Part.
met nust, however, be understood from the bernaung da, wered by eyes train:
vellously minute to ract from larte scu
1: for I adopted a chemical purity se ed with prejudiz rming those concleum
i gentleman occupe woll either support ihdraw them altor
er the best relations may be which wonii sus serveen
correctness of the new relations to be buni.
inexed diagram 'p. 110, represent the nemt ose;
SITY OF SIGNALS.-D and Susten penctions Thuck lly equal to zero when m caridiwa Mten
w Theory of Duplex
Lis investigation leral mathematical question waien le kiveri ir
from vol. xlviii. p.
VII. p. 138) the bo
any giren sariatin in the mixtum nuL le 18 mul
vizzi Smyth's communi nd approximate rapists importa a tele voration
of regret that my duties appointed within a month um of carbon, have quite por S. That regret is much tim k would have been done fare
Morren, Lielegg, Troosia Stirred to add that neverthe tigation in other da
e the only noticed
becomes smaller and smaker,
jese two functions D and S were shuset, as
sequently it may be expected, from the symmetry, that minute
λ which gives an infinite number of values of 2 when A, no are assigned. I now assume A=1 (the reed the octave of the string), and
1 do= as a pair of values such as may easily occur, and con
47' venient for calculation, for the sake of seeing the general nature of the results to be expected. The equation (8) can then be put in the form
2 The numbers placed under the head in the Table which
à follows, are approximate values of the first five roots of the above equation. Proceeding further, we should find a root lying between every consecutive pair of integers.
1 The second column contains the values of the ratios reduced
À to equal-temperament semitones; it gives the pitch of the note sounded with reference to the octave of the string.
The third column gives the pitch of the note sounded with reference to the lowest note of the combination, both in equaltemperament semitones and by description.
Pitch, in equal. Pitch, referred to lowest note of combination.
15.556 25.362 29.876 34.282
Flat major tenth.
Although it has not been possible to get a complete determination of the elements of any experiment, yet the following