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edge and base of the frond. The authors did not express any positive opinion as to the function of these processes; but they suggested that those given off from the non-poriferous face and from the base of calycine fronds, may serve as adventitious roots, and those given off from the margins and from the poriferous face near the margins may be irregularities of growth, unless they are the commencement of new fronds,

3. "The Steppes of Siberia." By Thomas Belt, Esq., F.G.S. The author described the portion of the Siberian steppes traversed by him as consisting of sand and loam. The best section seen by him was at Pavlodar, where he found 1 foot of surface soil, 20 feet of stratified reddish-brown sand, with lines of small gravel, 8 feet of light-coloured sandy silt, 15 feet of coarse sand, with lines of small pebbles and 1 line of large ones, and 6 feet of clayey unlaminated silt, with fragments of the bed rock in its lower half, the bed rock being Magnesian Limestone much crushed at the top. South of Pavlodar the surface was covered with pebbles, which became larger in advancing southward, until the soil was full of large angular quartz boulders. Further south the bed-rock comes to the surface in ridges and low hills, increasing in height until some of them attain 2000 feet. All the rock-surfaces were much shattered, as if by the action of frost, but they showed no signs of glacier-action. The ridges and hills were separated by plains composed of sandy clay, with numerous angular fragments derived from the rocks in the immediate neighbourhood. This is accounted for by the author on the supposition that they formed a series of shallow lakes, frozen over in winter, and that the ice on breaking up carried away fragments of the rocks. The distribution of the boulders on the plain north of the ridges was also attributed to floating ice.

The generally accepted marine origin of the great plain was said to be negatived by the absence of sea-shells in its deposits, whilst Cyrena fluminalis occurs in them. The author regards them as deposits from a great expanse of fresh water kept back by a barrier of polar ice descending far towards the south. In its greatest extension this ice-barrier would produce the crushing of the bed-rock; and as it retreated, the water coming down from the higher ground in the south would cover a continually increasing surface.

4. "On the Microscopic Structure and Composition of British Carboniferous Dolerites." By S. Allport, Esq., F.G.S.

The object of this paper is to supply further and conclusive evidence to show that there are dolerites and basalts of Carboniferous age whose original mineral constitution is precisely the same as those of the later Tertiary periods, those of both ages presenting the same varieties of structure, and that the great alterations which most of the older rocks have undergone constitute the only difference between the two groups. The author describes at some length the various constituents under the following heads, viz. felspar, augite, olivine, magnetite, mica, apatite, glassy matrix, &c.

He next describes the occurrence of dolerites in the Midland Coalfields, Ireland, Edinburgh, Arran, &c.

In conclusion he draws attention to the many variations in composition and texture in the same rock-mass, and accounts for them thus: If the lava were simply in a viscid state, with the ingredients imperfectly mixed, portions of it must, on consolidation, contain them in various proportions, just as is known to be the case in imperfectly fused slags.

He maintains that there is an absolute identity of composition, structure, and mode of occurrence in these eruptive rocks of very widely separated geological periods, and that therefore they should be placed in one group.

5. "Additional Remarks on Boulders, with a particular reference to a group of very large and far-travelled erratics in Llanarmon parish, Denbighshire." By D. Mackintosh, Esq., F.G.S.

The author, after referring to a number of northern-drift boulders in addition to those he had noticed in a former paper, describes several large felspathic boulders found up to a height of about 1750 feet above the sea, on Cefn-y-fedw, N. of Llangollen. He then gives a somewhat detailed account of the drifts in the neighbourhood of Corwen, and of some large felspathic boulders, probably from the Arenig mountains, which are generally found on the surface, or interposed between the lower boulder-clay and an upland extension of the middle sand of the plains. The main part of the paper is devoted to an account of the discovery of a numerous group of very large and far-travelled felspathic boulders in the parish of Llanarmon, Denbighshire. The author refers particularly to a remarkable slickensided boulder, and to the great "Immovable Stone" at Maendigychwyn (now called Eryrys), about 1150 feet above the sea, which is the largest far-transported boulder he has heard of in the British Isles. He stated a number of facts and considerations which led him to believe that the Llanarmon boulders, along with those further N. and W., must have come all the way from Snowdon, and that they were floated over passes or cols in the intervening ranges of hills by icebergs or coast-ice about the close of the Lower Boulder-clay period. He concluded by noticing the necessity for a personal examination of boulders instead of relying on answers to queries, and stated that about Llanarmon the felspathic boulders are called "granite tumblers," while in Cheshire all kinds of boulders are called" marble stones."

6. "Note on the Bingera Diamond-fields." By Archibald Liversidge, Esq., F.G.S.

The author commenced by describing the general characters of the older Australian Diamond-field of the Mudgee or Cudgegong District. The Bingera Diamond-field is situated in a basin among the mountains of the Drummond range, the encircling hills being of Carboniferous or Devonian age. The diamantiferous drift occurs in patches in the basin, which is invaded by spurs of basalt.


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rock under the drift is an argillaceous shale; and here and there are ou crops of a siliceous conglomerate. The diamonds have hitherto been worked only at the surface. The author mentions the principal minerals found associated with the diamonds, which are generally small, and their crystalline forms not very well developed. He also remarks on the general accordance in the geological constitution of various diamantiferous districts.

7. "Remarks on the working of the Molar Teeth of the Diprotodon." By Gerard Krefft, Esq., F.L.S. Communicated by the President.

In this paper the author criticised a figure of the lower molars of Diprotodon, published by Professor Owen, on the ground that the teeth are represented in it in an unabraded state, and stated that when the last tooth breaks through the gum the first of the series is always worn flat. He also remarked on the peculiar modification of the premolar in the genus Diprotodon.

LVI. Intelligence and Miscellaneous Articles.


To the Editors of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal.

AM obliged to Dr. Marshall Watts for pointing out the errors
in the wave-lengths of the oxygen- and carbon-lines as compared
in my paper. I am aware that in spectrum No. II. of the "Index"
jis given as 5602; but I assumed this to be a misprint for 5622, as
these last figures appear in spectrum No. I. against the same scale-
reading, viz. 58. The wave-lengths in the blue and green were
accidentally transposed. The true reading will therefore stand
thus :-

Dr. Vogel's oxygen-lines
Dr. Watts's carbon-lines.

Yellow. Green. Blue.

5603 5189 4829

5602 5195 4834

I am aware of the frequent impurity of vacuum-tubes; but it is hardly probable all the oxygen-tubes examined were impure. Dr. Vogel, too, does not hint at any suspicion of his tube, which, as I have said, agrees with mine very closely.

I am, &c.,


Guildford, May 1, 1875.

Phil. Mag. S. 4. Vol. 49. No. 327. June 1875.

2 L

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