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(Εξ, η εφ ́) ήλιου τέλλοντος.
(Συν, η εφ ́) οἷς γενομενοις.
The sun rising.
There being three garrisons of the Assyrians.
Which things being done.
The participles of impersonal verbs are often
57. Adverbs of time, place, quantity, order, exception, and the like, govern the genitive; as, a
Εγγυς (εφ') ἁλος.
Περα (ύπες) δίκης.
Near the sea.
Contrary to justice.
* 58. Nŋ and μa govern the accusative; àμa, and oμov,
the dative; as,
Μα (ομνυμι) Δια
Αμα (συν) τῳ ὑδατι.
Together with the water.
* 59. Two or more negatives strengthen the negation; as, (see obs. 29.)b
Ου δυνατον ουδεπωποτε It is impossible ever to do any of these things.
ουδεν τουτων πραττειν.
60. Some derivative adverbs govern the case of their
Αξίως της κλησεως.
Worthily of the calling.
a That is, adverbs formed from nouns.
b Sometimes two negatives make an affirmative, as in Latin and English. This is the case when a verb comes between them; as,
Ου δύναμαι μη μεμνήσθαι.
Non possum non meminisse.
61. The prepositions avтi, año, ex or E, and go, govern the genitive; ev, and σuv, the dative, sis or ɛs, and ava, the accusative; as, (see obs. 97-104.)
In a house.
Into a house.
The poets sometimes have ava, with a genitive,
or dative; as,
Ανα (επι) νηος εβη
* 62. Aα and
He went into the ship.
πep govern the genitive or accusative; aμqi, eti, tepi, and To, the genitive, dative, or accusative;
Επι την γην.
a The general principle is, that when rest is implied, the genitive or dative is used; when motion towards, the accusative. It may be observed, farther, that as the dative denotes the end, αμφι, επί, περι, and ὑπο, are followed by a dative, only when they express close around, resting or depending on, immediately under, or under the influence of; as,
* 63. Kara, from, or against, commonly governs the genitive; at, or according to, the accusative. Mɛta, with, the genitive; to, or after, the accusative. Пapa and πρоs, from, the genitive; at, or with, the dative; to, beside, against, the accusative; as,"
From the rocks.
According to my power.
From the lord.
The poets sometimes have μɛTa, with a dative;
Μετ' (εν) ανδρασι μαχεσ- Το fight with men.
64. A preposition often governs the same case, in composition, that it does without it; as,
He is tossed from his chariot.
65. The conjunctions, και, τε, δε, αλλα, μεν, ουτε, and the like, will have the same case; and, commonly, the same mood and tense after them, that goes before them;
Πάμπολλου οχλου οντος, και μη εχοντων τι φα
The multitude being very great, and they having nothing to
Ewgana naι μeμagrugna. I have seen and borne witness.
a Παρα and Tрos are joined, in this rule, for the sake of conciseness; as they may, commonly, be translated in the same words. But there is a marked distinction in the ideas expressed by them; apa implying permanence, duration, possession, and pos, contingency.
66. Αν, εαν, επειδαν, ἵνα, οφρα, όπως, όταν, όποταν, καν, κεν, and ❝s, are, for the most part, joined with the subjunctive
ye may know. Though I should fight better.
Av, xqv, and xɛv, are often used to give a subjunctive meaning to the other moods; as, (see obs. 74, 75, 76.)
Αν και τυγχανει βασιλευς Although he were a king.
a It cannot be said that any of these conjunctions necessarily requires the subjunctive mood; nor that there is any difference in the meaning of the conjunctions, according to the different moods with which they are used. In this respect the verb and conjunction appear totally independent of each other. Practice only, and the careful reading of the best authors, will direct the writers in the application of this rule. Some grammarians have been at great pains, in specifying with what particular moods. and tenses certain conjunctive particles are used; but he who depends on any other rule, in this case, than his own knowledge, and imitation of chaste writers, will be ever liable to errors.
1. Or honours, to a city, labour, of an old man, to oxen, to lions, faith, to a horn, of parsimony, Ο Thomas, two sons of Atreus, of Pythagoras.
2. Mountains, of two winds, bows, of a day, Ο Mercury, to a day, two brothers, of a Saviour, Ο woman, to Jove, life, of muses. 3. To trees, O man, of Demosthenes, to Latona, of a phrase, to a father, Ο king, of a poet, to a mouse, of an end, virgins, friendship.
4. Το tribunals, Ο robber, a ship, to men, of a king, bowls, of a mind, oxen, to daughters, to shepherds, a stream, parts,
5. To nations, of a flock, a priest, a fish, to a husband, of spring, to feet, Ο Hector, Ο Ajax, a crow, of a wall, two serpents.
6. Of two men, a storm, a father, cities, Arabians, a snake, to fathers, a comb, lions, walls, clusters, winter.
7. Dogs, to a vine, a sea, a wild boar; of an army, to horns,
Τιμη, αστυ, πονος*, πρεσβευς, βους, λεων, πισ τις, κερας, φειδω, Θωμας, Ατρείδης, Πυθαγορας.
Ορος, ανεμος, τοξον, ήμερα, Έρμεας, ήμερα, αδελφος, σωτηρη γυνή, Ζευς, βιος, μουσα.
Δενδρον, ανης, Δημοσθενης, Λητω, φρασις, πατηρ, βασιλευς, ποιητής, μυς, περας, παρθενος, φι
Βημα, λῃστης, ναυς, ανηρ, αναξ, λεβης, νοος, βους, θυγατηρ, ποίμην, έους, μερος.
Εθνος, πωυ, ἱερευς, ιχθυς*, ποσις, εας, πους, Εκτωρ, Αιας, κοραξα, τειχος, δρακων.
Ανθρωπος, λαίλαψε, παυ τηρε, πολις, Αραψ, οφις, πατηρ, κτεις*, λεων, τειχος, βοτρυς*, χειμων.
Κυων, αμπελος, θαλασ σας,συς, στρατευμα, κερας,