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THE INFINITIVE.

* 39. The infinitive mood is governed by verbs, adjectives, or some particle, such as ὡς, πριν, άχρι, μεχρι; as,

Όστις ζαν επιθυμεί, τειρασθώ νικαν.

Ωστε αυτους μεν εχειν.

Whoever desires to live, let him

try to conquer.

So that they possessed them.

* 40. The infinitive is often put elliptically, όρα, βλεπε, σκοπεί, οι ώστε being understood ; as, (see obs. 77.)

Αυτος ενι πρωτοισι (βλεπε) Do you yourself fight among μαχεσθαι.

(Ωστε) μικρό δειν.

the first. Almost.

* 41. The Greeks use μελλω with an infinitive, to express the future, both active and passive, which in Latin would be rendered by a participle of the future and the verb sum; as, (see obs. 88.)

Περι ὧν ὑμεῖς μελλετε κρι- of which things ye are about to judge. Judicaturi estis.

νειν.

PARTICIPLE.

42. Participles govern

the case of their own verbs ; as,

Τους νεωτέρους τοιαυτα ηθη παιδεύοντες.

Instructing the younger men in such manners.

* 43. Verbs of gesture, ειμι, τυγχανω, ύπαρχω, γινομαι, κυρω, εχω, φθάνω, and λανθανω, are used, with participles after them, to express, what in Latin would be rendered by some tense of a single verb; as, (see obs. 89-92.)

Ωχοντο φέροντες.

They carried away. Abstulere.

Σιγα νυν εστως, και μενε ὡς κυρεις εχων.

Σωκρατης τυγχάνει περι

πατων.

Be now silent standing there, and remain as thou art. Es. Socrates walks.

Ambulat.

* 44. Participles are often used, instead of the infinitive, after verbs signifying an emotion of the mind; as, (see obs. 86.) a

Αγαπων με διατελει.

Μεμνημαι ποιησας.

He continues to love me. Per

severat amare.

I remember that I did it. Memini fecisse.

THE SUPPLYING OF GERUNDS AND SUPINES.

* 45. The infinitive mood, or a participle, is used to supply the place of gerunds and supines; as, (see obs. 80.)

Εις το στρατιωτας συν

αγαγειν.

To gather the soldiers together.
Ad congregandum milites.

Ευεργετών αυτούς εκτησα- I acquired them by doing kindly.

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46. Verbal adjectives, governing a dative of the agent, and the case of their own verbs, are used to signify necessity; as, (see obs. 96.)

Γραπτέον εμοι επιστολήν.

I must write a letter. Scribendum est mihi epistolam.

. Under this rule are comprehended verbs signifying to persevere, desist, perceive, appear, and the like; as,

Διψων παυεται.

Sitire desinit. He ceases thirsting.

Allied to the principle of this rule is the construction of adjectives followed by participles. (see obs. 93.)

*

THE CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES.

47. The cause, manner, or instrument is put in the

dative; as,

Κρατει (εν) μηχαναις.

(Εν) αργυρέαις λογχαισι

μάχου, και παντα κρατήσεις.

He conquers by stratagems. Fight with silver weapons, and you will conquer all things.

* 48. The question whither? is commonly answered by Es or πpos, with the accusative: where? by ev, with the dative: whence? by ex or año, with the genitive: and by or through what place? by dia, with the genitive; as, a

Εν Ρωμη.

Εις την Αντιοχειαν.

Εκ, οι απο της πολεως.

Δια γης.

* 49. Adverbs in

In Rome.

To Antioch.

From the city.
By land.

and σ are used to signify at a place :

in de, σe, or ye, to a place: and in Sev and 9e, from a place; de is also added to accusatives, to signify to a place; as,

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50. The distance of one place from another is put in the accusative; as,

Έφεσος απέχει, (κατα) Ephesus is distant three days' τριων ήμερων όδον.

journey.

The preposition is often omitted; as,

Σουνιον ΐρον αφικομεθα.

Αιθέρι ναίων.

We came to sacred Sunium,
Dwelling in Aether.

These adverbs in σ are, originally, Ionic datives plural, governed by ey understood; as Αθήνησι, for εν Αθήναις.

51. The time when is commonly put in the genitive, sometimes in the dative; how long, in the accusative; as,

(Δια) ήμερας και νυκτος, (Εν) ήμερα μια

Οργη φιλούντων (κατα) ολιγον ισχυει χρονον.

By day and night.
On one day.

b

The anger of those who love, prevails but a short time.

52. The price or measure of any thing is put in the

genitive; sometimes, the

price is put in the dative; as,

Ανδριας (κατα το μηκος, η,

A statue twelve cubits high.

ύψος) δυώδεκα πήχεων.

Ωνησαμην (αντι) δυο οβο- I bought it for two pence.

λων.

(Επι) χρυσῳ την νίκην ως

νήσατο.

He bought the victory with gold.

ABSOLUTE CASES.

* 53. The genitive case of a substantive is often put absolutely, the former substantive, ένεκα, χαριν, εκ, εξ, οι some case of ris or is being understood; as, (see obs. 10, 11. and 17.)

Τα (εργα) Πλατωνος.

Ολυμπίας ή (μητης) Αλεξ

ανδρου.

The works of Plato.

Olympias the mother of Alexander.

Επαινω (ένεκα) της φιλο- I commend you for your love of

μουσίας.

Της γης (μερος) ετεμον.

music.

They laid waste part of the land.

a The genitive is used when an indefinite part of the specified time is expressed; the dative, when that time is to be distinguished from other times; as,

Εγενετο ἡμερας.

Εγένετο ήμερα.

It happened in some part of a day.
It happened on a certain day.

Adjectives formed from nouns of time are, sometimes, used in place of the nouns themselves; as,

Πανημέριοι μολπη θεον ἵλασκοντο. They propitiated the god with a

song, during the whole day.

Αδραστου δ' έγημε μιαν He married one of the daughters of Adrastus.

εκ) θυγατρων.

Ω (ένεκα) της αναιδειας.

O! impudence.

* 54. The dative is often put absolutely, especially after αυτος, συν being understood; as,

Των αυτών εργων (συν) The same works with them.

εκείνοις.

* 55. The accusative is often put absolutely, κατα being understood ; as,

(Κατα) πατριδα Ρωμαιος. Μαλα (κατα) θυμον εχολωθη.

By country a Roman.

He was much enraged in his mind.

* 56. A substantive with a participle, whose case depends upon no other word, is put in the genitive absolute; sometimes, by the Attics, in the accusative; very seldom in the dative; as, a

a The dative is seldom used, in such expression, unless with a preposition; although it is from this case that the Latins took their ablative absolute; as, Διαθήκη επι νεκροις (τοις διαθεμενοις) βεβαια.

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Testamentum mortuis (testantibus) firmum est. A will is of force, the (testators) being dead.

Promising to myself that he would die, (me hærede) leaving me his heir.

It is doubtful whether the Greek language does not also admit the nominative to be used, as an absolute case, as the English does ; as,

Μαχόμενοι και βασιλευς και Κυρος,

και οἱ αμφ' αυτους ὑπερ ἑκατέρου, όποσοι μεν των αμφι βασιλεα απεθανον, Κτησιας λεγει.

The King and Cyrus fighting,

and their respective assistants for each of them, Ctesias tells how many of the king's men fell.

But the expressions, in which the nominative appears absolute, may be considered as elliptical; the finite verb, with some conjunction preceding being understood; as, (see obs. 32.)

When the days were come.

Όταν) αἱ ἡμεραι ερχομεναι (ησαν).

Επειδαν) οἱ στρατιωται κατα το μεσον πεδιον (ετυγχανον) οντες.

When the soldiers were in the midst of the plain.

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