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* 39. The infinitive mood is governed by verbs, adjectives, or some particle, such as ws, πgi, axgi, μexgi; as,
Όστις ζαν επιθυμει, τει
Ωστε αυτους μεν εχειν.
Whoever desires to live, let him
try to conquer.
So that they possessed them,
* 40. The infinitive is often put elliptically, iga, BλETE, σXOTEL, or wσre being understood; as, (see obs. 77.)
Αυτος ενι πρωτοισι (βλεπε) Do you yourself fight among μαχεσθαι.
(Ωστε) μικρὰ δειν.
the first. Almost.
* 41. The Greeks use peλλw with an infinitive, to express the future, both active and passive, which in Latin would be rendered by a participle of the future and the verb sum; as, (see obs. 88.)
Περι ὧν ὑμεῖς μελλετε κρι- _ Of which things ye are about to judge. Judicaturi estis.
42. Participles govern
Τους νεωτερους τοιαυτα ηθη παιδεύοντες.
the case of their own verbs; as, Instructing the younger men in
* 43. Verbs of gesture, ειμι, τυγχανω, ὑπαρχω, γινομαι, κυρω, εχω, φθάνω, and λανθανω, are used, with participles after them, to express, what in Latin would be rendered by some tense of a single verb; as, (see obs. 89-92.)
They carried away. Abstulere.
Σιγα νυν εστως, και μένε ὡς κυρεις εχων. Σωκρατης τυγχανει περι
Be now silent standing there, and remain as thou art. Es.
* 44. Participles are often used, instead of the infinitive, after verbs signifying an emotion of the mind; as, (see obs. 86.) a
Αγαπων με διατελει.
He continues to love me. Per
I remember that I did it. Memini fecisse.
THE SUPPLYING OF GERUNDS AND SUPINES.
45. The infinitive mood, or a participle, is used to supply the place of gerunds and supines; as, (see obs. 80.)
Εις το στρατιωτας συν
To gather the soldiers together.
Ευεργετων αυτους εκτησα- Iacquired them by doing kindly.
Shameful to be done. Turpe
46. Verbal adjectives, governing a dative of the agent, and the case of their own verbs, are used to signify necessity; as, (see obs. 96.)
Γραπτεον εμοι επιστολήν.
I must write a letter. Scribendum est mihi epistolam.
a Under this rule are comprehended verbs signifying to persevere, desist, perceive, appear, and the like; as,
Sitire desinit. He ceases thirsting.
Allied to the principle of this rule is the construction of ad
THE CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES.
* 47. The cause, manner, or instrument is put in the
Κρατει (εν) μηχαναις.
μαχου, και παντα κρα-
He conquers by stratagems. Fight with silver weapons, and you will conquer all things.
* 48. The question whither ? is commonly answered by εις οι προς, with the accusative: where? by εν, with the dative: whence? by ex or amo, with the genitive: and by or through what place? by δια, with the genitive; as, a
Εις την Αντιοχειαν.
Εκ, or απο της πόλεως.
* 49. Adverbs in θι and σι are used to signify at a place : in δε, σε, or ζε, to a place : and in 9εν and 9e, from a place ; δε is also added to accusatives, to signify to a place ; as, Κορινθόθι οικία ναίων. Inhabiting houses at Corinth. He took the brazen spear from the tent.
Κλισίηθεν ανείλετο χαλ
go to Phthia.
50. The distance of one place from another is put in the
Εφεσος απεχει, (κατα)
τριων ήμερων ὁδον.
Ephesus is distant three days journey.
• The preposition is often omitted; as,
Σουνιον ἷρον αφικομεθα.
These adverbs in
We came to sacred Sunium,
are, originally, Ionic datives plural,
governed by εν understood; as Αθηνῃσι, for εν Αθηναις.
* 53. The genitive case of a substantive is often put absolutely, the former substantive, ένεκα, χαριν, εκ, εξ, or some case of τις or εἷς being understood; as, (see obs. 10, 11. and 17.)
a The genitive is used when an indefinite part of the specified time is expressed ; the dative, when that time is to be distinguished from other times ; as,
It happened in some part of a day.
Adjectives formed from nouns of time are, sometimes, used
in place of the nouns themselves; as,
Πανημέριοι μολπῃ θεον ίλασκοντο. They propitiated the god with a
Αδραστου δ εγημε (μιαν He married one of the daughters
Ω (ένεκα) της αναιδείας.
* 54. The dative is often put absolutely, especially after αυτος, συν being understood; as,
Των αυτων εργων (συν) The same works with them.
* 55. The accusative is often put absolutely, κατα being understood; as,
(Κατα) πατριδα Ρωμαιος. Μαλα (κατα) θυμον εχολωθη.
By country a Roman.
He was much enraged in his mind.
* 56. A substantive with a participle, whose case depends upon no other word, is put in the genitive absolute; sometimes, by the Attics, in the accusative; very seldom in the dative; as, a
The dative is seldom used, in such expression, unless with a preposition; although it is from this case that the Latins took their ablative absolute; as,
Διαθήκη επι νεκροις (τοις διαθεμενοις) βεβαια.
Testamentum mortuis (testantibus) firmum est. A will is of force, the (testators) being dead.
Υπισχνούμενος επ' εμοι τῷ κληρονομῳ Promising to myself that he τεθνήξεσθαι.
would die, (me hærede) leaving me his heir.
It is doubtful whether the Greek language does not also admit the nominative to be used, as an absolute case, as the English does; as,
Μαχόμενοι και βασιλευς και Κυρος, και οἱ αμφ' αυτους ὑπερ ἑκατέρου, όποσοι μεν των αμφι βασιλεα απεθανον, Κτησιας λεγει.
The King and Cyrus fighting,
and their respective assistants for each of them, Ctesias tells how many of the king's men fell.
But the expressions, in which the nominative appears absolute, may be considered as elliptical; the finite verb, with some conjunction preceding being understood ; as, (see obs. 32.)
Οταν) αἱ ήμεραι ερχομεναι (ησαν). Επειδαν) οἱ στρατιωται κατα το μεσον πεδιον (ετυγχανον) οντες.
When the days were come. When the soldiers were in the midst of the plain.