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101. These, with their several modifications, are expressed by the prepositions; thus,

In conjunction. Evv, with.

In opposition. AVTI, against; and, as the part opposed must be considered the front, avt, before.

In. Es, into, and in; ev, within; and, where several objects are placed together, μera, in among.

Above. Yes, completely over; ava, risen to top; επ, come to, and upon; κατα, descended upon.

Below. To, completely under; nata, descended to bottom. Before. Ipo, before, in place, or order; avt, in opposition. See above.

Behind. Mera, after, in order.a

Beside. Mera, following beside; nara, descending, or set down beside; pos, merely, or nearly in contact; napa, in complete juxta-position.

Around. App on each side; Tepi, completely around.b

To. Mera, following after, or coming over to; рos, towards, to contingently; ET, to and on; us, to, into; napa, unto, coming along side; ava, up to; nata, down to.

Through. Ava, through, from bottom to top; xaτa, through, from top to bottom; dia, through, as dividing; pervading, or moving in any direction, except directly up or down.

From. Ios, from slight adhesion; apa, from strong adhesion; ano, from surface, or resting on; ex, out of; xara, from bottom descending.

102. From this theory, the true meaning of the prepositions may be easily ascertained; and it will appear that those which seem to have the most opposite meanings, as rapa and προς, retain, in every instance, one signification; viz. that of moving in a direct line from one body to another, arriving and remaining at it, or passing by it.

1. Aupi, on each side.

2. Ava, up to, up through, upon.

3. AVTI, opposite, before.

a When the relations to be expressed were more complex, including those of three or more objects; such as, behind, beyond, &c.; or when the idea of distance, or the like, was to be added to the primary relation, adverbs of place were introduced.

• Αμφι and περι are sometimes used together : as, αμφι, περι, βωμον, round about an altar; sometimes they are used indifferently for each other, and, in some books, as the septuagint, audi is hardly ever used.

c Contrary to every principle of philology, ava is said to mean, sometimes, up and down; and the assertion is illustrated by such examples as

Εβη ανα στρατον.

He went up and down the army.

But what occasion is there to suppose that the person mentioned, returned upon his steps at all ? Would any critic say that ανα στρατον ᾤχετο κηλα θεοιο,

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10. Kara, down to, down through, or beside, at oottom, down from.

11. Mera, following over to, with, among.

12. Пapa, unto, beside, from adhesion.

13. Περι, around.

14. Пpo, before.

15. Пpos, towards, to, at, from contingency. 16. Evv, together with.

17. Υπερ, over.

18. To, under.

103. From the relations of place, the transition is easy to those of time, and the modes of thought. And the primary meaning of the prepositions is, in general, easily discernible, in these various applications of them. Yet it is not strange that, in the use of a language which flourished for many centuries, extended to various countries, and was spoken in several dialects, local circumstances and habit should have introduced a considerable variety in the use of the prepositions. That this was the case will be evident to a person who compares the ancient Ionic with the modern Attic writers.a Hence the propriety of following nature in the progress of language, in order to ascertain the true meaning of the prepositions; rather than endeavouring to deduce their sense from the various uses of them by so many different authors.

104. It would very far exceed the limits of these observations to exhibit a general list of the peculiar and idiomatical

should be rendered, The arrows of the God went up and down the army; as if an arrow sent from a bow could change its direction?

Even when ava and катα are applied to motion on a plain, they retain their original meaning; and are used according as the speaker conceives the object, to which he moves, above or below the level on which he stands and a very little observation will convince any person, that we regard almost every object in one or other of these relations.


a Let the reader compare the language of Chaucer, or any other of our ancient poets, with that of the present day, and he will readily conceive the changes to which a living language is subject.

Multa renascentur, quæ jam cecidere; cadentque
Quæ nunc sunt in honore vocabula, si volet usus,
Quem penes arbitrium est, et jus, et norma loquendi.

use of the prepositions. The following examples may serve as

a specimen of it:

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You are angry at those who spoke last.

The keeper of the king's seals. When the armies were in their quarters.

When Nicostratus was Archon of Athens.

Some things are in our power, other things not in our power. That I shall appear much more

conspicuous. Kings who died, leaving chil

dren to succeed them.

The following day.

The Athenians, having their fleet drawn up in a single line, sailed round them in a circle.

Παρα τοσουτον ου κατελήφθη, παρ’By ὅσον οἱ διωξαντες της ευθειας εξετράπησαν.

Αυτῷ μεν ὁ δημος, προ πολλου της πολεως οντι, ὑπηντα.

this means only he escaped being taken, that the pursuers turned out of the way. The people met him a considerable way before the city.

Προς Διος, διηγησαι ἡμῖν.

Προς επιστολαις ειναι.

For the sake of Jove relate to


To be writing letters.

105. There are, likewise, many adverbial phrases, made by the combination of prepositions with nouns, or adjectives; such as,

ATO σTovons, diligently.
Απο του φανερου, openly:
Els ibpv, contumeliously.
ETI TUX, accidentally.
Kara peya, greatly.

Απο του εικοτος, unlikely.
Ai' anpibeias, correctly.
Παρ' ολιγον, nearly.
Пpos xapi, agreeably.
Пlaga oλν, not nearly.


106. No language abounds more in the use of particles than the Greek. Besides such as are common to other languages, the Greek has certain particles to denote,

1. Emphasis; such as, dn, truly; Tov, probably, no doubt; To, really; and ye, which is connected with the emphatical word in the sentence, although several other words sometimes intervene; as,

Ει μη ὅλον, μερος γε.

If not all, at least a part.

2. Consequence; such as, av, next; apa and ja, therefore, then ; av, denoting that the verb to which it is prefixed, expresses an idea consequent on that expressed by the preceding verb; as, (see obs. 74, 75, 76.)

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3. Distinction; Mev is, generally,

placed in the first clause

of a paragraph, and dɛ, in each of the succeeding ones; as, (see obs. 23.)

Τα μεν εστιν εφ' ἡμιν, τα δε ουκ εφ' ἡμῖν.

Εμοι μεν το φαρμακον, Πτοιοδωρῷ δε το αφαρμακτον επέδωκε.

Some things are in our power, and other things not in our power.

He gave the poison to me, but the unpoisoned (cup) to

107. Some ancient writers, particularly Homer, make so frequent use of particles denoting emphasis, and consequence, that critics, wanting inclination to investigate the meaning of each particle, have contented themselves with calling several of them expletives. But however they may appear to persons whose language has no exactly corresponding words, it is certain that each of them has its proper, and distinct signification; and, where the same particle is repeated, or synonymous ones are used, it is done for the sake of emphasis. (see obs. 29, 30.)




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