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would be difficult to find the same materials in any other work of the same size. The grand revolutions which have taken place in the Protestant literature of this science within the past century, the various developments and misdevelopments which lie between Buddeus and Wuttke, have left scarce a trace in the work before us. Professor Werner, in the cloisterly stillness of his episcopal seminary, suffers no sound of the contending schools and philosophies of North Germany to reach the cars of his students. Suarez, Escobar, and Busenbaum are to him as oracular as two centuries ago. Very different was it with the Catholic moralists early in the present century—a Mutschelle, a Riegler, a Vogelsang. Catholic science has grown reactionary.

5. Geschichte der Christlichen Kirche von der Entstehung des Christenthums bis auf die neuste Zeit. Von Professor Dr. F. Chr. Baur. 5 Vols. Tübingen: Fues. 1863. Price, 13 thaler, 4 neugroschen. Of this work, the first and second volumes have been for a considerable time before the public, and now appear, the first in a third, and the second in a second edition. Vol. III., "The Christian Church in the Middle Ages" was noticed in these pages last year (p. 870), and Vol. V., " Church History of the Nineteenth Century," announced still more recently. The fourth volume now makes its appearance, under the editorial care of Dr. F. F. Baur (son of the late Professor), and completes the entire work. The merits of the history seem to increase in direct ratio to the author's distance from the apostolic and post-apostolic period of the church. His astonishing theory of the origin of Catholic doctrine, the Canon, and the Church, he seems to have retained to his death; and the first volumes of this history will ever remain the most important of the series, containing, as they do, one of the most curious specimens of historiographical aberration to be found in the world's literature. The volume before us covers the period extending from the Reformation to the end of the last century. It exhibits all that profound mastery of the material, historic insight, and skill in treatment for which Dr. Baur was distinguished. No room is taken up with literary references, quotations of sources, etc.; the seven hundred pages are all a clear, flowing narrative from the author's own pen. An excellent Index of twenty-seven pages adds much to the value of the volume.

6. Die Weissagungen des Alten Testaments in den Schriften des Flavius Josephus und das angebliche Zeugniss von Christo. Von Dr. Ernst Gerlach. 8vo. pp. vi and 120. Berlin: 1863. The Berlin theological faculty having propounded as a theme for prize competition in the year 1859-60 the investigation of the genuineness or non-genuineness of the noted "testimony to Christ" in the writings of Josephus, this little treatise was presented, and honored with the prize. After carefully rewriting and somewhat enlarging it, the author presented it to the public some two months ago. Its greatest value consists in its having shown, for the first time, the true method of arriving at a solution of the question, to wit, by way of a more thorough

and exhaustive study of Josephus's own Christological views and expressions, as found elsewhere in his writings. Our author's personal conclusion is that Josephus cannot have written the passage, whatever the critical grounds from MSS., etc., may say for or against its genuineness. Others must try the same method and see if it invariably lead to the same result before we can call the question finally settled. The table of contents will show the plan of the discussion in a brief and perspicuous form. Introduction: 1. Survey of the History and Literature of the Problem; 2. Was Josephus a Pharisee or Essene? I. Josephus's Estimate of Old Testament Prophecy: 1. Of the Old Testament Canon in general; 2. Of the Prophets in particular: (1) Their Inspiration and Credibility; (2) Fu!filment and aim of the Prophecies. II. Josephus's Idea of the Messiah, and its Justification in the Prophecies of the Old Testament: 1. the Prophecies of Daniel: (1) the Four Universal Monarchies; (2) the Interpretation of the Stone in Dan. ii. and the oracle respecting the World-ruler from Judah; 2. the Messianic Hopes of Josephus based upon the Prophecies of Daniel; 3. Traces of the Messianic Interpretation of other Prophecies. III. Criticism of the so-called Testimony to Christ: 1. On the Manuscripts and Variations; 2. Criticism of individual Sentences of the Passage; 3. On other Arguments against the genuineness of the passage; 4. The Passages on John the Baptist and James the brother of the Lord.

7. Die Bildung der evangelischen Theologen für den praktischen Gottesdienst. Von Dr. Daniel Schenkel. 8vo. pp. 208. Heidelberg: 1863. This is a memorial, prepared on the occasion of the celebration of the twentyfifth anniversary of the founding of the Evangelical Protestant Seminary for Preachers in Heidelberg, of which Dr. Schenkel is director. It contains: I. An Essay on the General Principles of Ministerial Education. IL A Sketch of the evangelical Predigerseminarien of Germany previous to the founding of the IIeidelberg one. III. The Institution in Heidelberg. IV. Concluding Remarks, and Appendices containing the Statutes of the different Predigerseminarien, Lists of the alumni of the Heidelberg school, etc. Some six years ago when the writer was engaged in preparing a series of papers on "Ministerial Education in Germany," this work would have spared him a great amount of trouble, correspondence, and expence. As all his readers, however, may not yet have made their studies in this field, he will cordially commend to them the information contained in Dr. Schenkel's Memorial volume. The author's views of ministerial culture and training, we scarcely need add, are very liberal. As to the policy of separate clerical schools he thinks it absolutely necessary, (1) that they be incorporated into the university as a university-institution; (2) That they be inseparably united with the theological faculty of the university; (3) That they be secured from the possibility of immediate ecclesiastical influence infringing upon their liberty; (4) That the pupils enjoy the fullest freedom of conscience, etc.; (5) That the free Protestant spirit prevail throughout the whole (p. 144).

8. Johann Gottlieb Fichte im Verhältniss zu Kirche und Staat. Von Ado'f Lasson. 8vo. pp. 244. Berlin: Herz; London: Williams and Norgate. 1863. Among the numerous recent publications on Fichte and his philosophy, we deem the above worthy of especial notice and commendation. The discussion of the relation of Fichte to the church (to Christianity would have been a better and truer expression) fills over 130 pages of the work, and is exceedingly interesting to every one who knows anything of the intimate relation of German philosophy to the latest developments of German theology. The author has made most thorough preliminary studies; he seems as familiar with every sentence of Fichte's writings as with the alphabet, and yet knows how to discriminate in his judgment of a master whcm he evidently reveres. The production is of more than ephemeral value.

9. Die Geschichte des Pietismus von Heinrich Schmid, Dr. and Professor der Thcologie in Erlangen. 8vo. pp. vi and 507. Nördlingen: 1863. Hossbach's "Life and Times of Spener," having portrayed the history of "Pietism," in too favorable a light to suit the strict Lutherans, and the work proving so able and popular as to attain to its third edition in 1861, it became necessary to set a more ecclesiastical pen in motion, and to attempt a history of this remarkable and salutary movement from the point of view of high Lutheranism. The result is before us. The author has had but few new materials, and does not display any great skill in historical composition. The work has a certain interest arising from its polemic aim, and from the reflex light which it throws upon the party to which its author belongs. It will be valued more as a criticism of Pietism than as its history. He substantially agrees with two of the latest Lutheran writers upon the subject, Max Goebel and Kliefoth, in the assertion, that the real. origin of the pietistic controversies was the attempt to transplant essentially Reformed ideas and appliances into the Lutheran church. IIe affects great candor in his treatment of Spener and the other distinguished leaders of the movement, but is often not even just, where he claims to be generous. He denies, with Rudelbach, that Pietism was a re-action against evils which originated in the Lutheran church in the course of the seventeenth century; affirming, on the other hand, that the evils of which it complai ed were long standing, dating, in fact, from the Reformation, and attributable to the imperfection of the constitution of the Lutheran church. The Introduction, filling forty-two pages, gives a very interesting picture of the deplorable state of the church in the century mentioned, partly from clergymen of the time, and partly from the more varied testimony which Tholuck has recently collected and brought to light in his Vorgeschichte des Rationalismus.










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Smith's Dictionary of the Bible,

Shedd's History of Christian Doctrine,

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