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the Antitheses; VII. Conclusion in the Concordienformel; VIII. The Orthodox Dogmatik; IX. The Century of Transition ; X. The Renovation of the Doctrine of the Church. The exegetical part occupies pp. 388 – 428 ; the concluding Dogmatic statement, pp. 429 – 470. The author has an uncommonly perspicuous style for a German theologian, and the gift of lucid statement and historical reproduction in a rare degree. After doing such full justice, however, to the new work, we cannot leave it without alluding to what seems to us a grand defect, viz. the author's total neglect of everything outside of the domain of Lutheran theology in the period since the Reformation. Dr. Luthardt justifies him. self in this procedure (p. 3) by simply remarking that “ here, in the development of the dogma in the Lutheran church, the most comprehensive and thorough-going investigations of the subject have been made," - a state. ment which not a few will be disposed to controvert. But granting it were true, a work which purports to be a historical portraiture of the whole subject has no right to reject such developments as that in France associated with the names of Amyraut and Pajon, or that in America associated with the name of Edwards, without stating that by its plan they are necessarily excluded. An unsophisticated reader of the book before us would finish it with the impression that he had been introduced to every author and to every theory related to the subject worthy of historic mention, and yet there is not in the whole work the name of a Protestant author outside of Lutheran Germany! This bigotted onesidedness and superciliousness of the school of new-Lutheran divines to which Dr. Luthardt belongs, is a sad drawback to the pleasure with which one welcomes their learned and acute. productions. Apart from this defect, the work may be regarded as almost a model monograph.

2. Die Entstehung und Fortbildung des Lutherthums von 1548–1576. Von Dr. H. Heppe. 8vo. p. 264. Cassel : 1863. The body of this work is taken up with extracts from twenty old Lutheran Confessions, prepared and adopted in various state churches between the time of the rise of the Adiaphoristic Controversy and the adoption of the Form of Concord. The most of these Confessions are wholly unknown to ordinary historians, and have been brought to light by Dr. Heppe's antiquarian researches. They compose a documentary history of the rise and formation of the dogmatic system of Lutheranism, and are here presented and commented upon as such. At the same time he finds in them a justification of the positions taken in his former works, “ Die confessionelle Entwicklung der altprotestantischen Kirche Deutschlands,” and “Geschichte des deutschen Protestantismus in den Jahren 1555 – 1581,” which positions have been violently controverted by zealous Lutheran writers. In an Appendix he pays his respects to the two chief critics of his views, viz. Plitt and Calinich, the latter, author of a prize essay, entitled “ Luther and the Augsburg Confession " (Leipsic: 1861). Heppe evidently has the best of the argument, though the prize essay is uncommonly interesting and able.

3. Jahrheiten des Ilimmelreichs. Aus Predigten und Betrachtungen von llenry Ward Beecher. 12mo. Np. 264. Bielefeld. So the voice of the Brooklyn preacher has at last reached Germany. A member of the DomCandidaten Stift at Berlin herewith presents the German public with a judicious selection of passages out of “Summer in the Soul,” Thoughts,” and “ Royal Truths,” neatly translated, and prefaced with a sketch of the author's life and character. May it have “a good run” among the sleepy, homily-making old domines of the “fatherland.”

* Life


4. Vorlesungen über die Lehrbegriffe der Klcineren protestantischen Kirchenparteien. Von Dr. Matthias Schneckenburger. Herausgegeben von Hundeshagen. 8vo. pp. 250. Frankfort am Maine : 1863. As Dr. Schneckenburger died in 1848, these posthumous Lectures have rather an old savor; nevertheless we will give them for their author's sake a hearty wel

Few readers of Dr. S.'s excellent “ Vergleichende Darstellung des lutherischen und reformirten Lehrbegriffs,” are aware of the tribulation with which its editor and his friends possessed themselves of the manuscript, and thus rescued from long obscurity and probable destruction the only comparative dogmatic worthy of the name. A family catastrophe has but recently released the remaining manuscripts from the clutch of whimsical widow S., the lectures before us among the number. Arraigned for causing the death of a servant girl by her inhuman treatment, and released on bail, the eccentric lady, instead of appearing at court at the proper time, sought an asylum in America, leaving the long-guarded writings of her husband a prey to his still surviving friends.

The present collection of lectures possesses most of the excellences of the former work, only it was impossible for the author to enter into the real spirit and essence of the various systems described so fully as he did into that of Lutheranism and Calvinism. Furthermore, he had not so many different studies of the subject by other minds of which he could avail himself as in the former case. Still the lectures are valuable, and well worthy of reproduction by the press, even at this late day. The contents are: Introduction (pp. 1 – 4); I. Arminianism (pp. 5 – 26); II. Socinianism (pp. 27 – 68); III. Quakerism (pp. 69 – 102); IV. Methodism (pp. 103 – 151); V. Moravianism (pp. 152 – 218); VI. Swedenborgianism (pp. 221 - 249).

5. Apologetische Beiträge. Von W. F. Gess und C. J. Riggenbach. 8vo pp. 248. Basel : 1863. Six apologetical essays by well-known Swiss divines. The three by Gess are entitled “ The Right of Doubt”; “ Doubt and Conscience"; " The Witness of the Holy Spirit.” The three by Riggenbach : “ The Wrath of God”; “ Original Sin "; and “ The Unpardonable Sin.” All of them are in the best style of modern German apology. As Riggenbach was himself originally a Rationalist, he understands the art of presenting the truth in its most effective form. The whole book may be regarded as a supplement to a work published two

years ago by the same house : “ Zur Verantwortung des Christlichen Glaubens, zehn Vorträge.” The first three are designed to help the sceptic to a belief in God and Christianity; the following three, to aid him in then surmounting the difficulties which threaten to overpower his infant faith.

6. Hales. Exegetisch-dogmatische Abhandlung über den Zustand der Abgeschiedenen Seelen. Von J. R. Oertel. 8vo. pp. 183. Leipzic: 1363. Eschatological subjects are now the favorite studies all over Germany. Within a very short time we have had new and valuable works in this department from Güder, Luthardt, Rinck, Rudloff, Laacke (formerly a Lutheran, now Catholic priest), and many others. Some of our readers may think Parson Oertel runs the doctrine into the ground, when we inform them that he locates the land of the departed in the interior of the earth ; but such a view is by no means uncommon here in Germany. We believe it has enjoyed even in England the support of no less authority than bishop Horsley. Though not a Restorationist, our author believes, with a large number of the German theologians, in the continuance of the day of grace till the day of judgment. Like many of his learned countrymen, he seems to conceive of the middle state” as a grand missionary field ; though we do not find that he goes so far as Weitbrecht, who accounts for the “ premature (!) death of so many competent and useful ministers and teachers” on the supposition that they are needed in the carrying on of the work of evangelizing the shadowy hosts of Hades! Perhaps the most noticeable feature of the essay is the logical manner in which he applies the idea of probation to both classes. If the unsaved can yet rise, so can the saved still fall. This we have never seen so fairly and forcibly carried out as in the present treatise. His collective results are well summed up by himself in the following words: “ We have found as the New Testament view of the middle state, that the abode of the departed is, for the most part, to be sought under the earth (§ 9); that this abode is divided into two separate localities, one for the relatively blessed, the other for the relatively miserable (SS 10,11); that the intermediate state is only a temporary one (§ 12); that all departed souls enter the intermediate state, either under the earth or in heaven (SS 13, 14); that the departed are bodiless (§ 16); that they possess self-consciousness, memory, the ability to perceive and receive impressions, to have intercourse with one another (SS 17, 18), to grow in knowledge and make progress in the career commenced in this life ($ 19), and retain even the possibility of changing the course commenced here, either to salvation (SS 28, 29) or to destruction ($ 30).” A concluding chapter discusses the relation of this scripture view to the established Lutheran doctrine.

7. Christliche Glaubenslehre nach protestantischen Grundsätzen dargestellt. Von Dr. Alex. Schweizer. Band I. pp. 394. Leipzig : 1863. Dr. Schweizer is well known to all who interest themselves in the earlier Calvinistic the

ology, as the author of an excellent “ History of the Central Dogmas of the Reformed Church," and of a “Dogmatik of the Reformed Church, reproduced from the Sources.” Though an ecclesiastical councillor of the Canton of Zurich, Professor in the University, and Pastor of the Cathedral Church in the same ciły, he has found time to commence the elaboration of an entirely new treatise, covering the whole field of systematic divinity, in which he aims to set forth the doctrines of the Christian faith, as apprehended by the evangelical church of to-day. The task will be seen to be no light one, when we remember the dissonant schools and philosophies and types of doctrine prevailing in the churches which he has more immediately in view; but our author enters upon it courageously, and if he succeeds in presenting a well-compacted system, may be hailed by thousands as having given exact expression to their faith, when in fact he first gave them something which they in consistency with their principles and prejudices could believe. The present volume contains the first part, and presents not a few features worthy of notice. For instance, we have never found the just distinction between Dogmatik as “ Kirchensatzungen-Wissenschafi " and Glaubenslehre, as the scientific reproduction and setting forth of the contents of the Christian faith, so beautifully and thoroughly illustrated as here. He takes the point of view of the Union” as that essentially attained by the whole evangelical church of Germany. As he is the first theologian of strictly Calvinistic antecedents who has undertaken an original expo. sition of the “Union Theology,” we are entitled to look for an essential complementation of the type set forth by Twesten, Nitzsch, etc. Judging from the volume before us, we should pronounce Dr. Schweizer the truest disciple of Schleiermacher who has yet appeared in this field. Though no servile imitation, the work is, in form, method, spirit, and style, through and through, Schleiermacherian. Perhaps none of his positions will excite more discussion, than the one that “das göttliche Wirken auf die Naturwesen der Bethätigung seiner Naturordnung, das Wirken auf die sittlichen Wessen der seiner sittlichen Weltordnung, und das Wirken auf die Erlösten oder Kinder Gottes der Bethätigung seiner Reichsordnung durchaus gleich gestellt wird." The bearing of this view on the question of miracles and on the doctrine of the Divine concursus is at once apparent. Lack of

space forbids the presentation of his novel method.

8. Miscellaneous : Messrs. Schwetsche and Son having completed their magnificent edition of Melanchthon's Works in twenty-seven quarto volumes, have now commenced upon Calvin's. The first volume (Tom. XXVIII. of the Corpus Reformatorum (pp. 1151) contains the Institutes in the original and two later modified editions. It is unquestionably the finest and most critical edition extant. Price, 4 thaler. A similar republication of Gerhardt's Loci” has just been commenced. Part IV. of Philippi's Kirchliche Dogmatik is out; it embraces “ das Werk Christi.. Part III. of J. J. van Oosterzee's Dutch Christology has just been published in Hamburg, under the title “ Christi Bild nach der Schrift."







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