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Some difference is found in the use of verbs of sight, in John's Gospel and Epistles and in the Apocalypse ; but no more than we might expect the same writer to exhibit in so different kinds of writing. The verb BRétrw is found sixteen times in the Gospel, about the same number of times in the Apocalypse, but not at all in the first Epistle. 'Opáw is quite frequently used in the Gospel, but almost always (once εώρων) in the Perfect, εώρακα, while it is used but three times in the Apocalypse. It need hardly be suggested how inappropriate the form in the Gospel would be to designate things seen in vision, where the objects pass. before the eyes and are gone.

The Aorist cidov is the exactly appropriate word, and is found far oftener than any other verb of sight in all the writings of John. But it is said, “ that Jeáopa i and Jeópew are favorite words with John," while the former is not found in the Apocalypse, and the latter but twice. Jeúonal occurs ten times (not often enough to prove it a very favorite word), and Jeớpew nearly twice as often. But the meaning of these words, especially the former, as used elsewhere by John, to look at carefully, to inspect, — would not find place in the Apocalypse.

II LO TEÚ elv is very frequent in the Gospel, used about one hundred times, but never in the Apocalypse; for the simple reason that the plan of the Apocalypse did not include a discussion of subjective faith, as a means of attaining to eternal life, so often brought to view in the Gospel. On the other hand, faith (Tlotis), as denoting a more objective or general relation, is found, naturally, four times in the Apocalypse, and never in the Gospel. We cannot accede to the view of Hengstenberg, that the word TOTEUELV is avoided in the Apocalypse because it is so often used by John in the Gospel, and by other writers of the New Testament, in order, in a prophetical work,“ to shun the characteristic peculiarities of his own customary dialect,” or the current phraseology of the age. We do not believe the Apocalypse was composed with any such nice balancings of what

was befitting the character of the book ; but that such language was employed as was suggested by the peculiar character of the book and the circumstances of the author.

It has been objected that composite words are less used in the Apocalypse than in John; but Professor Stuart, after a careful exarnination, finds that the preponderance is rather in favor of the Apocalypse than the Gospel."

Oukou un is used in the Apocalypse, but not in the other writings of John. So it is used in the Epistle to the Romans, and not elsewhere in Paul's writings, except the Hebrews. Is that Epistle therefore spurious? In the three places where it is found, it seems more appropriate than the common koguos, found so often in the Gospel and twice in the Apocalypse. In iii. 10 and xii. 9 it is put for the inhabitants of the earth, and from its derivation is naturally used; and in xvi. 14, with ans, it is more apposite than kóguos. Besides, it is the usual word in the LXX. for ban, and hence might naturally be employed in the Hebraistic style of the Apocalypse.

Παντοκράτωρ is used eight or nine times in the Apocalypse, and only once besides (in 2 Corinthians) in the New Testament, and always with ó Jeós or kúpos ó Jeós.

7 , , not probably an imitation. The strongest word was required to express the power and majesty of God, and none more suitable could be found. With a similar desire for emphatic, full-toned designations, characteristic of prophetic style, Christ is designated as “ Prince of the kings of the earth,” the “ Beginning of the creation of God,” etc.

Ú T O jovú occurs several times in the Apocalypse, but not in the other writings of John. The simple reason is, that endurance, patience under suffering, is prominent in the Apocalypse, but not in the Gospel and Epistles of John. The word is used several times by Paul, when he has occasion to give expression to the same idea. For the same

but ,יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאוֹת or ,אֵל שַׁדַּי It is parallel with the Hebrew

"See words enumerated in his Commentary, Vol. I. 385.
2 See Stuart and Davidson.

reason we find éxelv TV waptuplav (vi. 9; xii. 17 ; xix. 10) in the Apocalypse, and not elsewhere in John.

There are words that occur with unusual frequency in the Apocalypse ; for example, péryas is used about eighty times in the Apocalypse and five times in the Gospel. 'The reason is obvious to even a superficial reader. The subjectmatter, the objects brought to view, and the desire to give the importance which belonged to them to these objects, and the high tone which is suited to poetic and prophetic writings, are sufficient to account for this frequent use. The accumulation of words to designate the dignity or majesty of the object described; as, eủloyla, tiuń, dóta and kpátos; and the use of “full-toned words as uecoupámpa and totamobópntos, or longer forms of particles, as idoú for ide, are to be explained in the same way.1

Several other words and phrases have been referred to, as occurring either in the fourth Gospel and first Epistle and not in the Apocalypse, or the reverse ; but they are so manifestly a casual use that is perfectly natural, or one that is suggested by the objects before the mind of the writer at the moment, that it is a waste of time to enumerate them. The argument from this source, it seems to us, if not decisive in its favor, is certainly not against, the Johannean authorship of the Apocalypse. The course taken by the opposers of the genuineness of this book, as far as this argument goes, would deprive Paul of several of his Epistles ; and indeed any other author of works as different in their character as the fourth Gospel and the Apocalypse could be shown not to have written but one of the works in question. But, further, we proceed to give

Proof of Identity of Authorship from the Use or Omission

of the Same Words and Phrases in the Apocalypse and other Writings of John.

Μαρτυρία and μαρτυρέω are favorite words in the Gospel and Apocalypse. Gospel, i. 7, (twice) 8, 15, 19, 32,

1 Hengstenberg's Commentary, Vol. II. 441, 442.

34; ii. 20; ni. 11 (twice), 26, 28, 32, 33; iv. 39, 44; v. 31 (twice), 32 (three times), 33, 34, 36 (twice), 37, 39; vii. 7; viii. 13 (twice), 14 (twice), 17, 18 (twice); x. 25; xii. 17; xiii. 21 ; xv. 26, 27; xviii. 23, 37; xix. 35 (twice), xxi. 24 (twice). Apocalypse, i. 2 (twice), 9; vi. 9; xi. 7; xii. 11, 17; xix. 10; xx. 4. These are also very frequent in the first Epistle of John i. 2; iv. 14; v. 6, 7, 8, 9 (four times), 10 (three times), 11; and it occurs five times in the third Epistle vs. 3, 6, 12 (three times). Maptupia is rarely used elsewhere in the New Testament, while waptupéw occurs a few times in Acts and Hebrews, but is infrequent in the other books. In the Gospel we find such phrases as tv waptuplav ημών; Μαρτυρώ περί εμαυτού; Η μαρτυρία μου; Μαρτυρών Tepi fuoll, where Christ speaks of himself; and where others, as the Pharisees, speak to him, £ù prepi OEAUTOŮ uaptupeis; 'H μαρτυρία σου. . Cf. iii. 10; v. 31, 32; viii. 13, 14, et al. In the Apocalypse, tnv waptuplav Inooû XplotoŮ (i. 2, 9), and kindred phrases are frequent. No one can mistake the identity in the meaning of the words.

The use of aan divós is rare, except in the writings of John, and especially as applied to God is found elsewhere only in 1 Thess. i. 9. Gospel i. 9; iv. 23, 37; vi. 32; vii. 28; xv.1; xvii. 3 ; xix. 35. 1 John ii. 8; v. 20 (three times), Rev. iii. 7, 14; vi. 10; xv. 3; xvi. 7; xix. 9, 11; xxi. 5, xxii. 6.

Metà Tauta as a formula of transition, in its frequency, is peculiar to the writings of John, Apocalypse i. 19; iv. 1 ; vii. 1, 9; ix. 12; xv. 5; xviii. 1 : xix. 1 ; xx. 3. Gospel iii. 22; v. 1, 14; vi. 1 ; vii. 1 ; xix. 38; xxi. 1.

The use of the verb vikâv, especially in the present partciple o vixôv, in the acknowledged writings of John and the Apocalypse are strikingly indicative of identity of authorship, as the peculiar usage is not only not found in the New Testament, except in Rom. xii. 21, but is not in other authors. See Apocalypse ii. 7, 11, 17, 26; iii. 5, 12, 21 (twice); (v. 5; vi. 2; xi. 7; xii. 11; xiii. 7; xv. 2; xvii. . 14); xxi. 7; Gospel xvi. 33; first Epistle ii. 13, 14; iv. 4;

v. 4 (twice), 5. It should not escape notice that the peculiar use of overcoming the world or the evil, is almost confined to the first Epistle and the epistles to the churches, where, in accordance with the brief, apothegmatical character of the writing, the simple participle is used without the object in the accusative.

"Oys used in Gospel vii. 24 ; xi. 44, and Apocalypse i. 16, and not elsewhere in the New Testament.

Bport“ is very frequent in the Apocalypse, as iv. 5; vi. 1; viii. 5; x. 3, 4 (twice), xi. 19, et al, and is used in the same sense in the Gospel, and nowhere else in the New Testament, except once in Mark, who calls James and John sons of thunder (Bpovtñs)

'EBpaïoti is not found in any other of the sacred writings except John's Gospel and Apocalypse ; Gospel v. 2; xix. 13, 17, 20, and Apocalypse ix. 11; xvi. 16.

It is certainly strange that so peculiar an appellative as the word, ó lóyos, is applied to Christ in the Gospel (i. 1, 14), First Epistle (i. 1; v. 7), and Apocalypse (xix. 13), and nowhere else in the New Testament, if these are not all from the same hand.

E KREVTéw, only found in Rev. i. 7, and Gospel xix. 37.

Epúttelv is employed in Rev. v. 6; ix. 12; vi. 4, 9; xiii. 3, 8; xviii. 24, and First Epistle iii. 12 (twice), and not elsewhere.

Envoûv also is used in Apocalypse vii. 15; xii. 12; xiii. 6; xxi. 3, and Gospel i. 14, and only in those passages.

The phrase é xeiv u épos, with the meaning, to have part in or with, is found only in John's Gospel xiii. 8, and Apoclypse xx. 6.

II epit ateiv uetá Tivos, to walk with, associate with. Gospel vi. 66 ; Apocalypse iii. 4.

laleiv uetá (Tivos), to talk with, Rev. i. 12; iv. 1 ; X. 8; xvii. 1; xxi. 9, 15; Gospel iv. 27; ix. 37; xiv. 30; and not elsewhere, except Mark vi. 50.

Impeîv tov nóryov belongs only to John. See Gospel viii. 51, 52, 55 ; xiv. 23, 24 (TOUS Lóryovs); xv. 20; xvii. 6;

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