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Rev. iii. 8, 10. So τηρεϊν έκ (τινος) Rev. iii. 10; Gospel xvii. 15.

Κύριε, σύ οίδας, three times in Gospel xxi. 15 – 17, and Rev. vii. 13; not elsewhere.

Compare also the phrase γίνου πιστός (Gospel xx. 7; Rev. ii. 10) και καταβαίνειν εκ του ουρανού, (Gospel vi. 33, 38, 41, 42, 50; Apocalypse iii. 12; x. 1; xiii. 13; xvi. 21; xviii. 1; ΧΧ. et al.); αναβαίνειν εις τον ουρανόν (Gospel iii. 13; Apocalypse xi. 12; xix. 3); όνομα αυτο (Gospel i. 26 ; iii. 1; Rev. vi. 8; ix. 11); απεκρίθη λέγων (Gospel i. 26 ; x. 33; Rev. vii. 13).

In both the Gospel and Apocalypse it is usual to explain Hebrew by Greek words, Apoc. iii. 14; ix. 11; xii. 9; xx. 2; xxii. 20; Gospel i. 39, 42, 43; ix. 7; xix. 13, 17, a usage rare in the other New Testament writers.

A sort of parallelism made by a positive and negative expression is found in the writings of John. Gospel i. 3, 7, 20, 48; iii. 15, 17, 20; ν. 19, 24; viii. 35, 45; Χ. 4, 5, 28; xv. 5-7; First Epistle ii. 27; Apocalypse ii. 2, 8, 13; iii. 8, 17, 21, et al. A peculiar joining together of the present and future tenses is found in the Gospel xiv. 3, πάλιν έρχομαι, και παραλήψομαι υμάς, κ. τ. λ.; Apocalypse ii. 5, έρχομαί σοι ταχύ, και κινήσω την λυχνίας σου, κ. τ. λ.

The Apocalypse says of Satan (xii. 9), that "he was cast to the earth,” έβλήθη εις την γήν; the Gospel (xii. 31), that “ the prince of this world shall be cast out ” ; ο άρχων του κόσμου τούτου εκβληθήσεται έξω.

The omission of certain words and phrases common in other writers of the New Testament is noticeable in the writings of John, including the Apocalypse; as μετανοία, γέεννα, θησαυρός, θησαυρίζω; compounds of δυς; certain conjunctions as διό, διότι, έως αν; prepositions in connection with forms of γίνομαι, as εν τω γενέσθαι, εις το γενέσθαι, προς το γενέσθαι, μετά το γενέσθαι, αντί του γενέσ. θαι, etc.


For other words and phrases similar to the above, see Davidson's Introduction, Vol. III. 552 soq ; Stuart's Commentary, Vol. I. $ 17.

? Sec David on's Introduc'ion, Vol. I:I. 556, 557.

Similarity of Imagery in the Apocalypse and Gospel of John.

The imagery in the Apocalypse and the Gospel and Epistles of John is drawn from the same sources, and is frequently expressed in a similar manner. Christ is the bridegroom of the church : Gos. iii. 29: “Ο έχων την νύμφην, νυμφίος έστιν· ο δε φίλος

του νυμφίου, ο έστηκώς και ακούων αυτού, χαρά χαίρει

διά την φωνήν του νυμφίου. Αpoc. xix. 7: Χαίρωμεν και αγαλλιώμεθα, και δωμεν τήν δόξαν

αυτώ ότι ήλθεν ο γάμος του αρνίου, και η γυνή αυτού

ήτοίμασεν εαυτήν. Αpoc. xxi. 2: Και εγώ 'Ιωάννης είδαν την πόλιν την αγίαν

.. ήτοιμασμένην ως νύμφην κεκοσμημένην το ανδρι

αυτής. Αpoc. xxii. 17: Και το πνεύμα και η νύμφη λέγουσιν, κ. τ.λ.

So Christ is the shepherd and his followers the sheep : Gos. x. 1-5: ο..... ποιμήν εστι των προβάτων. . και

τα πρόβατα αυτά ακολουθεί, κ. τ. λ. Αpoc. vii. 17: το αρνίον ..... ποιμανει αυτούς, και οδηγήσει,

κ. τ. λ. Gos. x. 1: Ο μη εισερχόμενος διά της θύρας εις την αυλής

των προβάτων, κ. τ. λ. Gos. x. 7, 9: 'Εγώ είμι η θύρα των προβάτων. Αpoc. iii. 20: 'Ιδού, έστηκα επί την θύραν, και κρούω: εάν

... ανοίξη την θύραν. The voice and hearing are used similarly, in a figurative



Αpoc. iii. 20: Εάν τις ακούση της φωνής μου.
Gos. x. 3: Τα πρόβατα της φωνής αυτού ακούει.
Gos. x. 4: Τα πρόβατα οίδασι την φωνήν αυτού.
Gos. x. 5: Ουκ οίδασι των αλλοτρίων την φωνήν.
Gos. x. 16: της φωνής μου ακούσουσι.

So hunger and thirst, and the water of life:
Αpoc. xxii. 17: “Ο διψών ελθέτω, και θέλων λαμβανέτω ύδωρ

ζωής δωρεάν. Gos. vii. 37: Εάν τις διψά έργέσθω πρός με, και πινέτω.

VOL. XXI. No. 83.


Αpoc. xxi. 6: Εγώ τώ διψώντι δώσω εκ της πηγής του

ύδατος της ζωής δωρεάν. Gos. iv. 10: ES & KEP ăn con số 0 2 P. Αpoc. xxii. 1: Ποταμόν ύδατος ζωής. Gos. iv. 14: Πηγή ύδατος άλλομένου εις ζωήν αιώνιον. Αpoc. vii. 16: Ου πεινάσουσιν έτι, ουδε διψήσουσιν

@TL. . Gos. vi. 35: Ο ερχόμενος πρός με, ου μή πεινάση και ο

πιστεύων εις εμέ, ου μή διψήση πώποτε. Many more examples of a like kind might be adduced; but we will merely refer to the figurative use of such words as φωτίζω, δόξα, φαίνω, and the use of lamb as a designation of Christ, which is found twenty-five times in the Apocalypse, and in John's Gospel i. 29, 36, and not elsewhere in the New Testament, except in Acts viii. 32, and 1 Pet. i. 19, where Isa. liji. 7 is quoted. It is worthy of remark tható åpvós is used in the Gospel, while åpvíov is the word employed in the Apocalypse. “ But,” says Davidson, "ro åpvlov in the Apocalypse is chosen as a term descriptive of Messiah, not only with reference to his sacrificial death, an idea common to it and iuvós, but chiefly because the rò αρνίον of the Apocalypse is put in antithesis to θηρίον.! Similarity of Doctrine and Sentiment in the Apocalypse and

Acknowledged Writings of John. That different sentiments and doctrines, and different phases of the same doctrine, are presented in two pieces of writing, is no objection to identity of authorship. There must be a contrariety that cannot be reconciled. But instead of that, in comparing the fourth Gospel and Apoca. lypse, we find amidst a variety, and even diversity, which we should expect, some points of union; as many, indeed, as we ought to look for in works composed in so different circumstances, upon so different a plan, and for so different an end. In reference to the names given to Christ, such as logos

1 Introduction, Vol. III. 578.

and åpvíov we have already spoken. But there are other representations which are worthy of notice.

The propitiatory sacrifice of Christ is spoken of much in the same way. Apocalypse i. 5; “ Unto him ..... that washed us from our sins in his own blood.” 1 Epistle i. 7; “ The blood of Jesus Christ his son cleanseth us from all sin."

See also Apocalypse v. 9; vii. 14; xii. 11; xiv. 4; 1 Epistle ii. 2; iv. 10; Gospel i. 29, 36; x. 15, 18, et al.

The salvation procured by Christ is for all. This is from the nature of the Apocalypse expressed with more fulness; See Apocalypse v. 9; vii. 9; xxi. 25, 26; xxii. 2; First Epistle ii. 2; iv. 14; Gospel iii. 16; x. 16; xi. 51 seq. ; xii. 32.

The same power is accorded to Christ and the same praise ascribed to him, and in many cases it is like that which belongs to God the Father. Rev. i. 5 seq.; iii. 21; v. 6, 8-13; vii. 17; xi. 15; xiv. 1 ; xix. 10-13; xxi. 23; xxii. 13-16; Gospel i. 1 seq.; v. 20 seq. ; vi. 62; vii. 54 seq.; x. 28 seq. ; xii. 41 ; xvii. 1

seq. Omniscience is also ascribed to him. Apocalypse ii. 23: “I am he who searches the reins and the hearts;" and the introductions to the Epistles ii. 2, 9, 13, 19; ii. 1, 8, 15, and Gospel i. 23: “He knew all men,” and 24: “ He knew what was in man." There are also many other passages of the like nature.

Still he is represented as dependent upon the Father, especially in reference to what he teaches. Apocalypse i. 1: “ The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to show unto his servants.So in Gospel xvii. 8 Jesus says of his followers: “I have given unto them the words which thou gavest me;" and ii. 27 : “Even as I received of my Father"; and ii. 49: “I have not spoken of myself; but the Father which sent me, gave me a commandment what I should say." See also v. 19, 20; vii. 16; viii. 28; xv. 15.

On the other hand, Christ's followers are made participants in what he receives from the Father. In addition to the verses quoted in the preceding paragraph, which relate especially to the instruction given, see, in reference to power

and honor, Apocalypse iii. 21 : “ To bim that overcometh I will grant to sit with me on my throne,” etc. Gospel xii. 26 : 66 Where I am, there shall also my servant be ; and Apocalypse ii. 26; xiv. 2 ; xvii. 26, etc.

The stress laid upon works, and the necessity of exhibiting Christian principle in the life, is evident throughout the writings of John. Apocalypse ii. 23; iii. 1; xiv. 4, 5, 12, 13 et al; 1 Epistle ii. 3 seq.; iii. 10, 17. In regard to the Gospel, Lücke says: “As he represents the implantation and advancement of saving faith as the more immediate design of writing his Gospel, so also in his whole exhibition of doctrine and history he seems to indicate that the ground and centre of he Christian life is loving, active, obedient faith (see especially xiv. – xvii.), not a mere knowing and apprehending.” 1 It should not escape notice, that it is not particular duties and obligations, such as Paul and Peter often inculcate, that John lays stress upon, but works in general — the life.

The invisible and spiritual agency is necessarily different in the Apocalypse from that in the other writings of John, and indeed from that in the other New Testament books. There is little occasion to refer to angels and demons in the Gospel, while in the Apocalypse, “angels are the companions and interpreters of the seer throughout his visions. Their interposition is announced in the inscription to the book, and declared near its close (xxii. 16). They are everywhere brought forward to our view, either as the executioners of divine justice, or as fulfilling the will of God and the Redeemer, by becoming instruments in protecting the church, and making it victorious over all its enemies and persecutors.”2 No objection in respect to authorship can properly be made from this employment of angelic agency by the Almighty in the revelations which he made by his servant, unless it should appear from his other writings that John discarded unseen spiritual agents. In that case we might

1 Lücke, p. 215; quoted by Hengstenberg, Vol. II. 488.
2 Stuart's Apocalypse, Vol. II. Exc.; I. 397.

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