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The First Volume of MERIVALE'S HISTORY OF THE ROMANS UNDER THE EMPIRE was published in England in 1850; the last, in 1862. The whole is embraced in seven volumes. It is written in a pure, clear, and graphic style. It is a work of great interest, and has already acquired a high reputation, and is worthy to succeed Dr. Arnold's History of Rome, left unfinished by the early death of that eminent historian. In fulness and interest, breadth of learning and thoroughness of investigation, in the skill with which the vast amount of material has been digested and arranged, the work stands by the side of Grote's History of Greece. It is now republished by the Messrs. Appleton of New York, in the very best style of the Riverside Press. The scholars of our country are greatly indebted to the publishers for making this large and valuable work so easily accessible.

Four volumes have already been published here.

CHRISTIAN MEMORIALS OF THE WAR. By Horatio B. Hackett. Professor Hackett has done a valuable service in gathering up these waifs and memorials of the war,' scenes and incidents of the religious faith, patriotism, and bravery of our army,' which would never find their way into history. Even if they do not show better than history itself the spirit of the people, they will constitute an important complement of history, when the present struggle shall be calmly studied in after years. No volume on the war will be read with more tender interest (Boston: Gould and Lincoln. 1864. pp. 252).

HEAT CONSIDERED AS A MODE OF MOTION. By John Tyndall. The author is Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Royal Institution of England, and is the successor of Farady. He is favorably known in this country by his work on the Glaciers of the Alps. In the present treatise his object is to make the new views of heat as a mode of motion, which have been recently received by scientific men, understood by the popular mind. The views are original, clear, and stated without the technicalities of science, and will richly repay a careful study (Appletons: 1863. pp. 480).

YOUMAN'S CLASS-BOOK OF CHEMISTRY has been extensively used for several years. This new edition is entirely rewritten, and embraces the latest facts and principles of the science. It is a lucid exhibition of the subject, and is well adapted for a text-book or for general study (Appletons: 1864. pp. 462).

Messrs. Sever and Francis, Cambridge, have published a new edition of the PANEGYRICUS OF ISOCRATES, originally edited with Notes, by the late President Felton. The present edition is edited by Professor Goodwin, of Harvard University, who has added grammatical and other Notes, which give increased value to the volume. The Panegyricus is one of the best specimens of Isocrates; and the apparatus furnished in this attractive edition will fully meet the wants of the student.

The three first Books of XENOPHON'S ANABASIS, edited by Professor James R. Boise, of Michigan University, is an admirably prepared elementary text-book in Greek. We have seen nothing of the kind that comes

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nearer to the true standard for such a purpose. The Notes, including constant references to Hadley's and Kühner's Greek Grammars, are such as the beginner needs, yet not too full. The volume is also furnished with a copious Greek-English Vocabulary (Appletons: 1864. pp. 268).

A TREATISE ON HOMILETICS. By Daniel P. Kidder, D.D., Professor in the Garrett Biblical Institute. Very few contributions have been made of late, in this country or in England, to the department of Homiletics, and the present treatise does not come into a crowded or exhausted field. This volume is the result of an extensive and careful study of the best materials; and in all its parts gives evidence of having been prepared by one who appreciates the true objects of preaching, and knows the requisites for success in it. It presents, in a systematic form, practical and enlarged views on the whole subject. The student in divinity, and even the clergyman, will find it full of interest and instruction. The Appendix contains a valuable list of authors, from the 12th century to the present time, who have written on the subject of preaching (New York: Carlton and Porter, 1864. pp. 495).

A TREATISE ON LOGIC. By Francis Bowen, Professor of Moral Philosophy in Harvard College. The science of logic has made very great advances, in this country and England, in the last thirty years. The present work is an index of that progress. Those who studied Professor Hedge's Logic forty years ago, will scarcely recognize the same subject as it is treated in the present volume. The author has thoroughly studied the science in its present state of advancement, has incorporated into his volume what is common to the different systems, and reviews such questions as are still unsettled. There are points in the book which will be called in question; but it will at once take its place as the best text-book on the subject of which it treats (Cambridge: Sever and Francis, 1864. pp. 450).

LIFE OF JOHN MASON PECK, D.D. By Rufus Babcock. The subject of this memoir was, for forty years, a pioneer in the West, in preaching the gospel, establishing churches, sabbath schools, and other organizations for the improvement of the early settlers. Few men have left a wider influence for good in that section of the country. Dr. Lyman Beecher used to say that he led more valuable settlers into the Northwest than any ten men.

Dr. Babcock has shown skill and good taste in the preparation of this interesting memoir (Phil.: American Baptist Pub. Society, 1864. pp. 366).

LIGHT IN DARKNESS, or Christ discovered in his true Character, by a Unitarian. This little volume describes the process by which the author was led, step by step, from the Unitarian system to the one accepted by evangelical Christians. It is a narrative of touching interest, written in a spirit of Christian love, and is adapted to do much good (Boston: Gould and Lincoln, 1864. pp. 123).

The very neat and attractive form in which Messrs. Sever and Francis have published the PILGRIM'S PROGRESS will secure for it a greatly increased number of readers. It never looked so inviting to our eyes. The style is the same as that of "The Book of Praise,” noticed in our last No.




OCTOBER, 1864.




THERE is much of truth, if a little of pretension, in the remark of Scotus, quoted by Sir William Hamilton in his second lecture on logic: "Logica est ars artium et scientia scientiarum, qua aperta, omnes aliae aperiuntur; et, qua clausa, omnes aliae clauduntur; cum qua quaelibet, sine qua nulla.” If logic be, as the most profound and most learned thinker of the age has pronounced it to be, "the science of the laws of thought," the vitality and importance of its relationship to all science, to all intellectual discipline, can hardly be overrated. Not more indispensable to the physical astronomer or to the civil engineer is the science of mathematics, as a system to be known, as a discipline to be applied in practice, than the science of the laws of thought to the thinker, both as objective science or complement of principles, and also as subjective discipline or instrument of intellectual training. If there be but a grain of truth and justice in these claims of logic, what can interest more the world of thinkers, the world of educators, a thinking age, an educating age, — than the present condition and probable destiny of logic?

Time was when all thought went out in public habited VOL. XXI. No. 84.


throughout in the dress and cut of logic. Now it would be a spectacle that would strike by its rarity, were there to appear in the public courses of thought a gait or a dress that logic had formed or furnished. Time was when logic ruled queen in the courts of science and education. Now she is scarcely allowed to appear as a servitor. If we bow with deferential homage to the maxim, "vox populi, vox Dei," admitting that the sentiment of the world must be in truth and justice, and so acknowledge that there was reason for this remarkable fall of logic in the estimation of philosophers and of educators, it may yet be claimed, in justice, that the rejection of logic is to be attributed to other grounds than a denial of its own intrinsic merits or of its vital relationship to the advance of science and the cultivation of mind. The arrogant pretensions of disciples or the blind devotion of eulogists pessimum inimicorum genus - may repel a sensitive age from real excellence and worth; or an uncouth attire and a barbarous dialect may exclude from a truly refined society. The past literature of logic reveals sufficient grounds in these accidental relations of the science for that general rejection from the halls of education which it has experienced.

Logic claims to be the science of thought. This claim it urges with a strong presumption in its favor. For, that thought has laws, principles governing it, in accordance with which it must proceed, if it proceed at all; laws and principles that are not beyond the range of allowed human research, and which can be ascertained, arranged, and exhibited in an intelligible form and beneficial method; laws and principles which, as acquired and applied, as guiding and controlling, must make all thinking more true and more efficient every way, none will presume, on any a priori grounds at least, to question. Let the utmost be conceded to its failure in the past; let it be admitted that the systems of scholastic logic, with their empty pretensions or their narrow exclusiveness and their barbarous terminology, are unworthy of regard but to the philosophical antiquarian, to

whom fossils, as mere fossils, are gems, and who is utterly indifferent whether it be diamond, coal, or granite pebble, so that he finds a product of the ages past, telling its age and history; it still may be that in the recent instauration of the science that chief desideratum to a true thinker and to a true educator, to an age of scientific progress, is actually supplied, which a true system of the laws of all thought must of its own nature promise.

Such an instauration, it is claimed, is in fact realized in "The New Analytic of Logical Forms," by Sir William Hamilton. The nature, extent, and promise of this labor of Hamilton it is now proposed to examine.

The gathered results of Hamilton's labors in this field of science appear in his Lectures on Logic, and his Discussions. His earliest contribution to logical science was in an Article published in the Edinburgh Review, in April, 1833. This article, which is chiefly a criticism on recent English works on logic, it is interesting to observe, only exposed a fatal defect in the existing doctrine of logic; but did not articulately define its extent or indicate the correction to be made. The article involved the truth of the new doctrine, but only in part, and did not explicitly enounce it. In 1840 he publicly taught the doctrine in full. In his edition of Reid's works, published in 1846, he exposed in form what he calls "a radical defect and vital inconsistency" in the existing logical system. His more matured doctrine of the syllogism is given in a note to Mr. Baynes's " Essay on the New Analytic of Logical Forms," published in 1850.

The improvements introduced into the science by Hamil

1 Lectures on Logic. By Sir William Hamilton, Bart., Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Edited by the Rev. Henry L. Mansel, Waynflete Professor of Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy, Oxford, and John Veitch, M.A., Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and Metaphysics, St. Andrews. Boston: Gould and Lincoln. 1860.

Discussions on Philosophy and Literature, Education and University Reform, chiefly from the Edinburgh Review; corrected, vindicated, enlarged, in Notes and Appendices. By Sir William Hamilton, Bart. With an Introductory Essay by Robert Turnbull, D.D. New York: Harper and Brothers. 1858.

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