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requiring the most critical study of the great variety of causes, many of them extremely subtile, which have occasioned these changes. It starts the questions: why one people use the lips, tongue, nose, teeth, or throat in speech more than another; why vowel sounds preponderate in languages spoken in milder climates, and consonants in colder; why one nation prefers nasal sounds and another guttural ; why one language, as the Latin, avoids aspirates, and another, as the Greek, shows a fondness for them. Some of the causes of the changes in the forms of words radically the same will be found to arise from substituting one movement of the organs of speech for another nearly related to it; others from the influences of climate, occupations, habits, and culture; and a very large part from mere laziness

an indolent people not being willing to make the effort neccessary to sound certain letters.

Every student will find new interest in classical study by making himself familiar with the general laws of change in the forms of words, which are here so fully illustrated.

The study of English etymology, too, as here treated, is full of interest and profit; it will give a freshness and fulness to the meaning of many words, which before were comparatively tame. A large number of words were originally pictures of wbat they expressed; this pictorial power they will regain by proper etymological study,

In another edition Dr. Dwight will probably modify the treatment of some of these subjects; but generally they indicate extensive, thorough, and independent investigation. He has done a valuable service to philology in the preparation of these attractive volumes; and our countrymen are greatly indebted to him for presenting in so accessible a form the results of his long and faithful study.

We are glad to announce that Professor Thayer, of the Theological Seminary, Andover, is to prepare a New Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. It is to be translated from the Lexicon Graeco-Latinum of Dr. L. W. Grimm, the first part of which appeared in 1862.

Dr. Grimm aims not only to exhibit the recent improvements in lexicography, as they are embodied in the Paris edition of Stephens's Thesaurus, and Rost's edition of Passow's Dictionary, but also to produce a Lexicon which shall correspond to the present condition of textual criticism, of exegesis, and of biblical theology. He notices all the readings found in the Elzevir edition of the Greek Testament, in Griesbach, Lachmam, and Tischendorf (ed. 7, minor, 1859). In his definitions he studies brevity, perspicuity, and strict observance of logical and historical arrangement. He takes proper notice of the use of terms in the Septuagint, and in the Apocrypha of the Old Testament; and, when referring to the usage of profane authors, he gives the age, or the class of writers, in which the word under consideration is found. In the opinion of eminent judges this work, when completed, will be by far the best Lexicon of the New Testament. Professor Thayer will introduce such changes and additions as will adapt it to the wants of American and English students.

ARTICLE X.

RECENT GERMAN THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE.

BY CHARLES M. MEAD, M.A., BERLIN, GERMANY.

mann.

Die Synoptischen Evangelien - ihr Ursprung und geschichtlicher Charakter. By Prof. H. J. Holtzmann, of lleidelberg. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engel

This is an octavo volume of 514 pages, devoted to the discussion of the vexing question : When and by whom were the synoptical Gospels written? The author gives first a history of the various theories on the subject, especially of the German investigations since Koppe, Storr and Michaelis first gave currency to the proposition that Mark’s gospel was the original; from which sketch it appears that almost every possible hypothesis respecting the source, the mutual relation, and historical character of these three Gospels has found advocates. Undismayed however, Prof. Holtzmann attempts to solve the knotty problem. Rejecting, as hardly worth noticing, the view that the books in question were the original products of the alleged authors, writing independently of one another, on account of the minute resemblances, particularly in grammatical construction and forms ; rejecting, however, quite as decidedly, on account of the striking discrepancies in the different narratives of the same events, the view that either of the three books was the original Gospel, on which alone the others were based, he advocates the hypothesis that, besides tradition, there were two primitive Gospels, from which the existing ones were compiled. One of these (designated by him A, or Urmarcus) is found, little changed, in Mark; the other (designated A, or Urmattbäus), together, with the first was the source from which Matthew and Luke derived their information. Matthew used A more than Luke; Luke used A, especially the collection of Christ's discourses contained in it, more than Matthew. Matthew wrote just before the destruction of Jerusalem; Luke shortly after; so also probably Mark. As to the credibility of the Gospels, pre-eminence is to be assigned to Mark; next to him stands Matthew, who, however, arranged his material artificially, thus sacrificing chronological to logical order. Luke is still less reliable as regards the historical sequence of events, but his Gospel is especially valuable as containing so many of Christ's sayings not to be found in the others.

The work before us bas evidently been prepared with great labor and care, and is undoubtedly a valuable contribution to the criticism of the synoptical Gospels. That his peculiar theory, however, can be considered as proved, is not conceded. It can bardly escape notice that he sometimes magnifies the force of considerations which are in themselves trivial, e.g. that the satanology of Luke xiii. 11-16 is widely different from that of the Gospels in general ; that Matthew's account of the healing of the leper, (ch. viii. 1-4) is less accurate than that in Mark i. 40-45, for the reason that Christ's prolibition to make the case known would bave been aimless if,

as is stated Matt. viii. 1, great multitudes were présent. Moreover, the general point of view of Prof. Holtzmann is altogether too independent of a belief in inspiration to inspire confidence in the conclusions to which he arrives. Though decidedly condemning Strauss' theory of the mythical origin of the Gospels in general, he pronounces various passages in Matthew to be nothing but unreliable legends, without the shadow of a demonstration. In this way he disposes of Matt. iii. 14, 15; xiv. 28–32; xvii. 2427; xxi. 14-16; xxvi. 52-54 ; xxvii. 3-10, 19, 24, 51–54, 62-66; xxviii. 2-4, 11-15. The miracles of Christ he divides into those which plainly had a benevolent end, and those which have more or less of an aesthetic character." Of the former he says: “ They deserve at least a very careful consideration, and, as we shall see, a certain degree of historical evidence in respect to them is attainable.” As to the latter, although not indiscriminately rejecting them, he considers them credible only in so far as their symbolic character is clear. Among them he classes the resurrection of Christ, and holds that from the synoptical Gospels no certainty can be attained respecting its reality. The temptation of Christ he calls, in plain terms, a myth. On the whole, the book before us may be considered as important, not only as a contribution to biblical science, but as representing the tone of a very large, perhaps an increasing, party of German theologians.

Die Lehre von den Sakramenten in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung innerhalb der abendländischen Kirche bis zum Concil von Trient. By Dr. G. L. Hahn, Prof. in Breslau. Breslau : C. Morgenstern. 1864. A learned and valuable work, presenting a purely historical treatment of the subject under consideration. The author discusses the meaning of the term “sacrament,” as originally and subsequently used; the ecclesiastical dogmas and views concerning the necessity and appropriateness of sacraments; the difference in sacraments of different periods; what are the strictly Christian sacraments; the constituents, the institution, and the administrators of the sacraments; the conditions necessary to their fulfilment; their efficacy; the origin and conditions of their efficacy. Copious references are made to the various authorities consulted.

Kirchliche Glaubenslehre. By Prof. F. A. Philippi of Rostock. Stuttgart: Samuel G. Liesching. The fourth volume of this work is before us. It contains a discussion of the work of Christ, divided, according to the method which since Schleiermacher has became the favorite one in Germany, into Christ's work as Prophet, as Priest, and as King. The larger part of the volume is occupied with the treatment of the second of these topics. Philippi represents the extreme Old Lutheran orthodoxy. As to the dogma here discussed, he holds to the strict view of a literal transfer of the punishment, and even of the guilt, of man to Christ (p. 167). He recognizes indeed the force of the objection that guilt is essentially untransferable from one person to another, but answers it by pointing to actvial cases of vicarious suffering, e.g., Louis XVI., the sacrificial lamb, wlo bore and expiated the sins of his ancestors "; and, in answer to the question under what conditions such a substitution can really be considered valid, le

points to "the intimate relation in which the representative surety and substitute is connected with the person or community represented by him, which connection is so close that the representative may serve for the one represented, and, as it were, an identity of the persons is effected.” In the case of the atonement, this, " as it were,” falls away ; all this, which in earthly relations is only typically, relatively, and imperfectly realized, is found in Christ in an archetypal and absolute form." " Therefore he is able and willing to interpose and be our surety, and expiate our guilt by doing and suffering. As the first Adam was made by God, so Christ, as the second Adam, made himself the head and representative of mankind.” Philippi also holds to the doctrine of the two obediences of Christ ; the strict infinity of man's guilt, sin being “in its deepest essence self-deification, and therefore in its real tendency the annihilation of God," and accordingly to the strict infinity of the penal sufferings of Christ, — “he emptied at one draught to the last drop the cup of God's infinite wrath.' * God's death for God's death, -- that is the perfectly full equivalent for our guilt” (p. 29).

The style of this book is lively and clear. The sketch of the various theories of the atonement is extended and thorough; so likewise the exposition of the signification of the Jewish sacrificial offerings. The author avoids the more material and offensive forms of representation which förmer advocates of the strict satisfaction theory have used; but this very avoidance leads him into indefinite, almost mystical, forms of expression, so that just where the kernel of a discussion lies he is liable to be the least intelligible.

Das Leben Jesu, fiir das deutsche Volk bearbeitet. By D. F. Strauss. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus. This is an entirely new form of the famous work which first appeared in 1835. The author has aimed to popularize and defend the views which be then advanced. By way of introduction he subjects the different lives of Christ which have appeared during the last century to a criticism, the result of which is a confirmation of his own theory (the mythical) as the only one tenable. As we may have more to say of this work in the future, we will at present only remark that, in spite of the manifest untenableness of the author's view, it will probably live longer than that of Renan, and may do more harm, although it is not written in a style adapted to excite so much popular enthusiasm.

Das Charakterbild Jesu. Ein biblischer Versuch. By Prof. Daniel Schenkel of Heidelberg. Wiesbaden: Kreidel's Verlag. Following close on the heels of Renan and Strauss, Prof. Schenkel has here given us his view of the problem of Jesus' life. Although he is not so thorough an unbeliever as his predecessors, in this department his work must be assigned to the same class. He makes Mark's Gospel the basis of his biography, denying the genuineness of John's, With regard to this latter point, it would seem that it is likely to be for the next few years one of the most important subjects of controversy among biblical scholars in Germany. Vol. XXI. No. 84.

112

According to Schenkel's own confession, his tendency has been from a more orthodox, towards his present rationalistic, point of view.

Der Grundgedanke des Buches Hiob. Von L. Chr. F. W. Hinecke, Archidiakonus zu Clausthal. Clausthal : Grosse'sche Buchhandlung. A treatise of 72 pages aiming to prove that the book of Job is designed to set forth the truth that even the servant of God must suffer, but the Israel of God should not quarrel with the unsearchable God, for at last all will be right.” The author not only denies that the book of Job has a historical basis, he does not allow it even to rest on a legend. Its authorship he assigns to a period after the exile.

Die Weissagungen Sacharjas, erklärt von Lic. Dr. August Köhler, ausserordentlicher Prof. der Theologie in Erlangen. Erlangen : Andr. Deichert. This is the second half of the work, which first appeared in 1861. Well worth recommendation as a learned and sound commentary.

Zur Kritik des Barnabasbriefes aus dem codex Sinaiticus. By Dr. C. H. Weizfäcker, Professor in Tübingen. Tübingen : L. F. Fues. A short work defending the antiquity of the Epistle of Barnabas.

Erklärung des Propheten Daniel und der Ofenbarung Johannis, sowie der Weissagung von Hezekiels Gog., Cap. 37–39. By J. M. Gärtner. Stuttgart: Belser.

Beiträge zun Erklärung des alten Testamentes, Vol. V. By Prof. Laur. Reinke. Münster: Theissing.

De natura et notione symbolica cheruborum. Commentatio. By E. C. A. Riehm, Prof. in Halle. Basel : Balmer und Riehm.

Bilder aus der Reformationsgeschichte 2le Bd. By Prof. Karl Strack. Leipzig : Schlicke.

Die Geschichte des Pietismus. Von H. Schmidt, Prof. der Theol. in Erlangen. Nördlingen: C. H. Beck. A very valuable work.

Das Schulwesen der Jesuiten nach den Ordensgesetzen, dargestellt von Dr. Gustav Weicker, College am Königlichen Pädagogium zu Halle. Halle : Waisenhaus Buchhandlung. Highly recommended by good judges.

Conciliengeschichte, nach den Quellen bearbeitet. Von Dr. Carl Joseph Hefele, ord. öffentlichem Prof. der Theol. an der Univ. Tübingen. Freiburg: Herdersche Buchhandlung. This is the fifth volume of Prof. Hefele's work, and covers the period from Gregory VII. to A.D. 1250.

Die Catechismen der Waldenser und Böhmischen Brüder, als Documente ihres wechselseitigen Lehraustausches. Kritische Textansgabe mit kirchen und literargeschichtlichen Untersuchungen. By Gerhard von Gezschwitz. Erlangen :

: Verlag von Theod. Bläsing. Die christliche Ethik. Von Ph. Theodor Culmann, Pfarrer zu Speyer. Erster Theil. Stuttgart: Druck und Verlag v. Joh. Fr. Steinkopf. The author died soon after the appearance of this the first part. Ethics is here treated from a philosophical point of view; and the philosophy is of the kind found in Jacob Böhme.

Evangelische Pastoraltheologie. Von Dr. Chr. Palmer. Zweite vermehrte und verbesserte Auflage. Stuttgart: J. Fr. Steinkopf.

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