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Prize for Modern History by Mr. Kenrick, to Mr. Carpenter; the Prize by Enelpis, for the best Greek Prose Translation, to Mr. Kendall; and that for the best Oration to Mr. W. C. Perry.
The Visitor concluded with the following short Address :
My dear young friends, —There now devolves upon me the pleasing office of closing this Examination with a short address. I assure you I never executed this part of my duty with greater pleasure, for I have never witnessed an Examination more highly satisfactory.
Paradoxical, however, as it may seem, I am constrained to acknowledge that my satisfaction has been somewhat damped by observing that the fruits of your diligence and proficiency have not been brought to such a promising state of forwardness, without such an expence of mental energy as, in several instances, to be scarcely compatible with the due retention of that bodily health and vigour so natural to youth, and so essential to success, and the enjoyment of future years. While I adınire the spirit of laudable ambition which has prompted your exertions to make a creditable appearance before your friends on this occasion, I would intreat you to recollect, that the object of your pursuit of your studies here, is to prepare yourselves for usefulness hereafter ; and, as if, by a premature waste of power, the engine should cease to work, or if, by overstraining the main spring, the timepiccc should move irregularly, the object of the constructor will be defeated-so in the complex system of the human frame, the Great Contriver has so adjusted the bodily and mental powers, that the one cannot be neglected without injury to the other. There may be an intemperance of the mind as well as of the body; both naturally, though not both so morally, deleterious -Let me therefore advise you, my young friends, to give to each its due proportion, both of labour and relaxation : cach will then assist the other, and the general enjoyment and usefulness will be secured.
I feel it necessary, also, to make another observation by way of caution, respecting the distribution of the prizes. It is obvious that these must be limited in number ; there would otherwise be no room for competition. But the amount of merit may not be limited; at least may greatly exceed the ordinary proportion. This has been the case in the present instance; and, I am instructed to say, has occasioned great difficulty to those who have had the adjudication of the prizes. It is hoped that several who may find themselves overlooked will make allowance for this difficulty ; and satisfy themselves with the consciousness of having deserved, and of feeling that their merits are known to and acknowledged by their Tutors ; and also, as far as they were competent to judge, by those who have attended this Examination.
Permit me to congratulate you, my young friends, on the correspondence which has been proposed, and with such cordiality and good feeling been commenced, with your fellowstudents in the Divinity College in Harvard University at Cambridge, New England. I have perused with great pleasure the opening address of your young American friends, and also your reply to it, which I highly approve. I hope the correspondence will be carried on with spirit and punctuality; and I trust that all the authors connected with this Institution will enable you to comply, in a creditable manner, with their proposal of an exchange of books. I, for one, shall with great pleasure, though in some cases with a melancholy pleasure, do all in my power for this purpose. The Examination was closed as usual, with a short devotional exercise.
MEETING OF OPERATIVE NATURALISTS. On the Friday in Wbit week, the first meeting of a Society of Operative Naturalists, living in the neighbourhood of Manchester, took place in Mr. Heywood's school-room, Miles Platting, Manchester; JETIRO TINKER, of Staleybridge, (power-loom overlooker) in the chair.
The meeting commenced by the chairman expressing his very great pleasure in witnessing the call on the Naturalists of the neighbourhood so warmly responded to, and hoped that on every subject that came before the meeting, personalities would be avoided, and no statement or theory be admitted without undergoing a rigid scrutiny. The great fault into which operative naturalists fell, was taking up theories without sufficient investigation, and after they had adopted, evincing an absurd attachment to them. This might be attributed to a defective education, but he hoped that the time would shortly arrive when the operative who neglected to give his child the best possible education, would be shunned as one who denied bis children bread, and the perpetuating ignorance be punished as a crime to the state.
Francis Looney, of Manchester, then stated that years ago he had attempted to originate a meeting of the kind, but without success, owing to the objections of those who were considerably advanced in some one branch of natural history; the botanist supposing that nothing but botany would interest, and the entomologist that the habits of insects only would be pleasing ; but the proceedings of that day would show whether promiscuous facts, stated in simple language, would not only please in themselves, but also be highly instructive by the discussion they would give rise to. Such meetings were not intended for the teaching of natural history, but merely to bring together men of kindred minds; and though a good naturalist might not feel himself much profited in his own particular branch, yet the human mind was so constituted as to take pleasure in the advancement of the species. The specimens on the table would show that a few individuals had exerted themselves in providing an intellectual feast; for the forest, the open plain, the swamp, and the hot-house had been invaded for one department; the locust-eaten plains of North America, the green wood shade, and the banks of sparkling rivers, for another; and for a third, the bowels of the earth had been opened, and the 'medals of creation' taken therefrom, to illustrate to us the sate of the organic world ages on ages ago. He alluded to the false pride evinced by the operatives towards those placed by circumstances in what is called a superior grade; he was sorry to say that this jealous and uncalled-for disposi. tion had prevented many eminent individuals, and some females, from attending that day; but that, knowing the prejudice, the parties who had called the meeting had bowed to it, though he hoped that in a short time this bad feeling would be worn away, and that the great family of man would be more and more united.
He then read “An Account of some experiments made on the growth of Vegetables, deprived of access to vegetable matter, and watered with distilled water-made by Mr. Hadfield, of Cornbrook,' which gave rise to very philosophical remarks on the food of plants; and the arguments and experiments adduced from the writings of Saussure, Davy, Lindley and others, shewed to great advantage the extent of reading and aptness in quoting facts from the best authors of many of the parties present.
George Crozier, saddler, read the next paper, ‘On some of the benefits which may be derived from the study of Entomology,' in which he reviewed the uses of insects as respects food, the arts, medicine, and in the economy of nature. The economy of the insects was highly interesting, especially the notice of the habits of that useful insect, the burying beetle.
The next paper was by Robert Hopwood, (Clerk,) Staley Bridge, . On the Difference of Form in the Extremities of Man and the Quadrumanous Animals, which was neatly shown by the comparative anatomy of the parts, illustrated by the bones and drawings. Few operatives have the means of acquiring a knowledge of anatomy; and the interest with which this paper was listened to, proves that knowledge of any kind needs only to be seen by them to be fully appreciated.
The last subject was “ A short Description of the Geological Character of the Manufacturing District,' by Francis Looney, a subject which has been less studied than perhaps any other; in which the whole of the formations included in a circle of eight miles diameter was illustrated by coloured sections, drawings of fossil plants, rock specimens, and the newly-described fossils.
SLAVERY IN AMERICA.--The influence of the noble act of justice performed by Great Britain in the emancipation of her slaves, is making itself felt throughout the world, nor least in the United States. The whole country is in a ferment; the states holding slaves are indignant at the demands for emancipation made by those who hold them not. The agitation is to be deplored, but the evil is frightful, and a price, we suppose, must be paid for the good which is desired, and which is sure to come. In 1830, the number of slaves was 2,010,436, wbile the population of the whole Union was 12,856,165, making one in every six slaves. This is enough to show that the problem is not so easy of solution as was that which the British Legislature solved, in giving freedom to some half million of persons placed at the other side of the globe. What has been done to prepare the slaves for freedom? In the state of Georgia, where the slaves amount to one-half of the population, the laws enjoin a heavy penalty against any one teaching a slave, negro, or free person of colour, to read or write either written or printed characters, or procuring or suffering a slave or person of colour to transact business for him in writing:' against any person employing a slave or free person of colour in setting up types for printing, or other labour about the office requiring a knowledge of reading or writing ;' and against any person of colour, whether free or slave, preaching, exhorting, or joining in any religious exercise with any person of colour, free or slave, in the presence of more than seven persons of colour, neglecting to obtain a certificate or licence !!' A law has recently passed, even in Connecticut, discouraging the education of coloured children introduced from other states, and in the course of 1833, a lady, who had with this view established a school for such children, was prosecuted and committed to prison. Prior to the passing of this law a school for such children had been formed by Miss Crandall, of Canterbury, (Conn.) and for continuing her establishment without the licence required, she was prosecuted. On conviction, she appealed to a superior court, but before the matter was decided, her school was broken up by popular violence. From a feeling which is unknown in Europe, a coloured person, although residing in the most enlightened states, is prevented from attaining that position in society to which his natural intelligence, aided by the benefits of education, would inevitably raise him.
We have received a file of the Boston (U.S.) Christian Register, from which we extract the following :
The cause of Unitarianism is spreading throughout the north-western part of New York, particularly in that rich section of country in the neighbourhood of Seneca and Cayuga Lakes. A preacher who would make a circuit, would find ample employment and many anxious hearers.
The number of slaves (blacks) who are communicants in the Unitarian church, (Charleston), of which Rev. Mr. Gilman is pastor, is 100.
From the third semi-annual report of Mr. Arnold, Minister and Visitor of the Poor in New York, it appears that there are in that city 29,726 persons who receive more or less relief from the Corporation, amounting to little less than one-seventh of the whole population. This system of degradation, by making people public paupers, Mr. Arnold justly exposes :— The sympathies of the rich towards the poor, which are better than wealth, are greatly lessened by it, while the poor themselves are taught that there is an inexhaustible fund in the hand of the city authorities which is theirs of right, if by any means they can obtain it; and they often pride themselves, among one another, on their adroitness in securing the larger share. Their regard for character, and the common decencies of life, are gradually undermined. Habits of indolence, wastefulness and profligacy are encouraged. Respect for the rights of property becomes weaker and weaker, until it is hardly felt by them. Their regard for truth and honesty is lessened by each successive fraud which they practice, to obtain the desired relief. By constant and often fruitless importunity, a feeling of meanness, servility, and debasement is engendered. They are frequently refused relief, and they feel as though injustice had been done them, and a cruel and relentless enmity is awakened towards all who are in better circumstances than themselves'. Mr. Arnold is zealously and efficiently pursuing the duties of his mission in the spirit and manner of Dr. Tuckerman.
A new Periodical, entitled the Western Examiner, is announced to be published monthly
at Cincinnati, to be conducted by the Unitarian ministers at Buffalo, Cincinnati, Louisville, and St. Louis ; and to be under the special superintendence of Rev. E. Peabody. The prospectus says • We think the West demands, and will support, such a work. We believe there is a spirit here which asks for Light.'
OBITUARY. On the 24th of June ult. died, the Rev B. R. Davis, Minister, during the long period of forty-three years, of the Protestant Dissenting congregation at Chowbent, in Lancashire, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. The character of Mr. Davis was the object of general respect. His Christian virtues endeared him, not only to the Christian society with which he was connected, and to the beloved inmates of his own family, but they gained and preserved the respect of his numerous acquaintance; and in particular, of the ministers of his denomination within the district. All justly regarded him as a man of a well informed and cultivated understanding, of a sound and dispassionate judgment, of a liberal and Christian spirit, and of a charitable and disinterested disposition. He was far removed from pride and ostentation, and ever disliked the assumption of authority and consequence. He neither asserted nor conceded claims of predominance. He cherished Christian liberty and equality. He was clothed with the virtues of modesty and humility. He condescended to men of low estate; and he was ready to perform offices of humanity to the poorest. Though his means were never ample, he often devised liberal things; and the sick and needy in his neighbourhood, were frequently indebted to his kind attentions for aiding their physical as well as moral wants.
As a Christian minister, Mr. Davis was punctual and conscientious in the discharge of the duties of his office, and he acquired the full confidence and warm attachment of the various members of his congregation. He was educated for the ministry at the academy at Daventry
afterwards Northampton; and under the influence of the impartial system there pursued, which recognised the principle of private judgment and the duty of free enquiry, he, with many others, adopted liberal sentiments in religion, and subsequently professed and taught a rational Christianity. Indeed, few congregations have been more favoured than that lately under his ministerial care, having had a succession of zealous and liberal ministers, during a century and a quarter, or more, distinguished for their early attachment to rational Christianity, and steady adherence to Christian liberty, truth and righteousness. This was one of the first congregations in Lancashire, who freed themselves from the intolerant trammels of Trinitarian Calvinism. In the midst of such a people, the labours of the Christian ministry are no less agreeable than honourable and useful. Christian friends, maintain the character which you have so long borne. Your venerable ministers, being dead, yet speak : hear their voice.
It pertains not to this slight sketch, to attempt a personal history of Mr. Davis. In the comparative retiredness of his situation, little can have occurred of general interest. He was married early in life, and brought up a family of eight children; now, except one deceased, variously engaged in useful and respectable occupations. Mrs. Davis died about twelve years before her husband.
It is proper here to state, that Mr. Davis for many years took great interest in the management of that useful institution, the Widow's Fund. For this he was exceedingly well qualified, by his intimate local knowledge of the affairs of most of the congregations in the district. He
many years the Secretary to the Fund, and the chief manager of its affairs in general; in which capacity, his services can scarcely be too highly estimated, and accordingly his loss will be greatly felt.
Mr. Davis's departure from this temporary scene of existence was tranquil and peaceful. For more than four years he had suffered longcontinued and acute pain from the tic doloureur. This superinduced other maladies, which were attended with great prostration of physical strength; but the energy and serenity of his mind continued unahated ;his spirit sustained his infirmity. He was always cheerful, and relied with tranquil hope on the essential goodness and mercy of God, in his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord. He had risen, as usual, betimes in the morning of the day of his death, and had been attending on some ordinary concerns; nor were his family alarmed with any unusual symptoms. But some time before dinner, he went to take a little rest, as he had been accustomed, on the sofa; and one of his daughters, soon after coming to remind him of dinner-time, found him in the act of expiring, without a struggle or a groan!
W. J. TO CORRESPONDENTS. F. D. is acceptable.-— Doctor' had better become doctus' before he assumes the tide or the functions of a teacher.-G. and R. T. received. Also Unitarian,' from whom we hope to hear again. The subject had been undertaken by a competent hand.
In our next Number, a Sermon by Dr. Channing, entitled “The Future Life." We regret with G. the neglect into which the Manchester Book and Tract Society has fallen; for a knowledge of the causes of which, he had better apply to the officers of the society.
J. Í. has our hearty thanks : we request the remainder. It is not ability for original composition she wants. Let the trial be made.
Forrest and Fogg, Printers, Manchester.