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It is as much a mistake to put before the girls in our public schools a teacher who is awkward, slouchily dressed, embarrassed in company, as it is to put before the boys a weak, knock-kneed, vacillating, shambling, half-baked male teacher, and let them think it is a man. First the woman, then the lady,-- then as much more as you can get, should be the motto in choosing teachers, and this requires of all woman teachers that they have social positions, social relations, social attachments.-C. W. Bardeen.

It would be a good thing to teach children to stand up and be looked at; to bear with composure the glances, cold, curious, critical of the human eyes turned upon them. Instead of this, however, we teach them, by our utter indefference to the rudeness of it, to stare. Meet a half dozen girls coming from school with dainty satchels on their arms, and notice how they look at you from brow to toe. They know the coler of your eyes and hair, the shape of your bonnet, the quality of your gown; and all because they look at you bodily and unwink ingly, without any apology in their manner for the impertinence Where you meet one young girl who behaves very quietly upon the street and who gives you a shy, modest glance as she passes, you will meet a dozen who talk and laugh loudly, who saunter, twirl their handkerchiefs, look over their shoulders, criticise the passers-by, and chew gum. By all means, be light hearte and joyous and full of good, rollicking fun: but do be modest and quiet and womanly upon the street.

Gold-Beaters, by hammering, can reduce gold leaves to such minute thinness that 282,000 must be laid upon each other to produce the thickness of an inch. Yet each leaf is so perfect and free from holes that one of them laid on any surface, as in gilding, gives the appearance of solid gold. They are so thin that if formed into a book 1,500 would only occupy the space of a single leaf of book paper.

A single volume of gold leaf book one inch in thickness would have as many pages as an entire library of 1,500 volumes of common books, even though the volumes averaged 400 pages each.

The London board of education has appointed six women at a salary of $400 each, to visit schools. Heretofore lady visitors have been regularly employed but without remuneration, the position being honorary.


BY J. M. DENNIS, Mt. Airy, Ga.

That eniment American Philologist Professor Whitney says: The study of phonetics has long been coming forward into more and more prominence as an essential part of the study of language, and a thorough understanding of the mode of production of alphabetic sounds has become an indispensible qualification of a linguistic scholar; he who can take to pieces his native utterance and give a tolerably axact account of every item in it lacks the true foundation on which every thing else should repose.

Every one should have an ambition to be able to speak his native tongue with elegance and prosperity, yet, if there is any one thing more commonly neglected in all of our schools than the subject of pronunciation it is difficult to imagine what it is.

It has been estimated that about one in ten thousand of our best educated people is a good reader. Perhaps a smaller proportionat e nnmber of even this class habitually pronounce correctly all the words of their daily vocabulary. Few persons see our writing; hence few know whether our orthography is good or bad, but all hear our conversation and readily determine, from our manner of expressing ourselves, what our association are and have been, whether with the refined and cultured, or with the rude and illiterate. A large number of our mos eminent lawyers, physicians, clergymen, teachers and even college professors habitually mispronounce common words, even the technical terms peculiar to their profession. At a state teacher's institute, the writer has heard a professional elocutionist commit grave orthoepical blunders, yet correct pronunciation is universally regarded as an indispensible eliment of good oratory. So exacting were the Greeks in this regard that the mispronunciation of a single word by Demosthenes would have been greeted with hisses.

Letters are but the symbols of certain sounds and the teacher should be able, at sight of the symbol, to give the sound and vice versa, to present the symbol on hearing the sound. He should be able to pronounce correctly according to some established standard every wod in the school-room, to utter correctly all the elementary sounds of the English language scparately and in combination, tơ ellps words phonetically as well as alphabetically, and to write them

indicating their proper orthoepy by means of the accent and diacrit ical marks. It is probably a want of these qualifications in many of our teacher's that, to some extent, retards the introduction of what are termed improved methods of instruction into country schools. All of our readers are now arranged for this purpose, and that long, tedious jumble of scholastic nonsense consisting of a-b, abs, i-b, ibs, bla, blas, and b-l-o, blos, ad nauseam, are now excluded from a place n our spellers. The alphabetic method is a thing of the past, and the sooner the parents, teachers, and school officers, especially in our rural districts, recognize this fact the better for the schools. To use these books to advantage, and as they are intended to be used requires this knowledge of the teacher. Besides, the practice of the most eminent and successful teecher's, the public sentiment of the best educational centers, and the teachings of all our Normal Colleges and Teacher's Institutes have long since dethroned the antiquated A-B C method and installed the word, sentence, and phonic methods. In Germany where teaching is the professlon, and the art and science of teaching has probably attained a higher degree of perfection than in any other country the use of the alphabetic method is prohibited by law. These facts readily suggest to the live teacher that he must abondon antiquated methods and lift his pupils up to the plain of modern educational advancement.

No one not conversant with the sounds of the letters and the modifications of these sounds as indicated by the diacritical marks can either teach these methods successfully, or use a dictionary intelligently. If in doubt about the proper pronunciation of a word it will be utterly impossible for him to ascertain it by reference to a dictionary. The truth of this proposition is demonstrated by the experience of all who have been so unfortunate as to belong to the traditional dictionary class, a kind of pedagogical charlotanry often serving only to flatter the vanity of the pupil and deceive the parent as to his progress. At eight years of age our juvenile intellect had to wrestle with such sesquipedlian monstrosities; as abracdabra, a superstitious charm against agues, abacus, a counting table and Aron spelled orally big a, little a, r-o-n run, Aron. This unintelligible >olysyllabic jargon, this enforced self-stultification palled on our youthful mind and, together with the mispronunciations religiously taught, still haunts our memory like some horrible phantasmagoria. The

dictionary is a reference book, not a text-book, and to use it as a text-book is a pedagogical solecism. Pupils should be taught to use it with facility to ascertain the etymology, orthopy and meaning of words.

Orthography means literally the art of writing correctly, and experience has taught that the best means of learning to spell is to write the words; hence the necessity of constant written spelling All the spelling exercises should be written and supplemented occasionally by oral spelling principally for the purpose of teaching syllabication and pronunciation. In the oral exercise, when a word is pronounced, let the pupil pronounce it and then spell and pronounce it correctly.

Our graded spellers contain all the familiar words in common use, and the ability to write them correctly should satisfy the demand of of the most exacting. We are said to know a word when we can pronounce, write, define and use it correctly in a sentence. A good speller and a word analysis will, if thoroughly taught, insure this accomplishment.

Let any one who entertains a doubt that he habitually mispro, nounces many of the commonest words in the langnage examine the following list carefully and see if he pronounces them eorrectly; viz. the words a and the in the sentences, as, The cat caught a rat, ask parent, educator (not edjoocation). naturally (not natchoorally), shriek, shrub (not srub) legislator, legislature, with, about, abdomen, every, evening, duty, news, truths, youths, bronchitis, menengitis, bromide, morphine, assume, fortnight, absolute, resolution, arsonic, diamond, aunt, haunt, jaundice, precedence, route, subtle, juvenile, interesting, industry, bouquet, booth, ally, alternate, indecorous, sacrifice, shew suffice, vagrant, vagary, epizootic, suite, suit (not soot), plait, Asia, Persia, Missouri, transact (not tranz), three-legged, syringe, sɔɔ aceess, confidant, palaver, iron, bomb, caisson, ration, financial, financier, peremptory, oleomargarine, often, forbade, nausea, javelin, exterpate, Italic, Chinese, idea, harrass, employe, dilute, desist, apparatus, status, diphtheria, alias, prorata. were. lose. half, laugh, wont and won't, cant and can't.

Let the teacher at the board devote ten minutes daily to this subject as a general exercise for the school, teach the sound of the etrers, one at a time, thoroughly and completely and the names and

uses of the diacritical marks and accents; illustrate each sound by writing appropriate words, using the necessary diacritical marks, and practice on words of peculiar and difficult pronunciation until all are able to spell words phonetically.

If this is done skillfully for a short time the ears and voices of the children will become trained, and the teacher will find himself surrounded by a bevy of severe critics who occasionally venture to remind him of a lapsus linguse.


Our usual winter holiday teachers excursion through Florida and Cuba will be made again in December. We have heard so many express a desire to go and complain of the want of funds that we have finally concluded to offer a free trip to any teacher or school officer who will furnish us with the most subscriptions, best articles, news and help for our journals. We will limit the contest in Florida to THE FLORIDA JOURNAL and in Georgia to THE GECRGIA TEACHER. We will have to submit the merits of th articles on timely subjects to a committee. The other helps for these journals respectively will be easier estimated by us. We want to do something for the teachers and at the same time help our circulation, improve the contents and popularizs those educational periodicals. Now, teachers, you have a chance to take a most delightful trip without one cent cost for all usual transportation, hotels and customary traveling expenses You can easily do a great deal for THE FORGIA TEACHER among your friends in Georgia and alike in Florida for THE FLORIDA JOURNAL. We hope to hear very soon who are going to compete for these courtesies. Sample copies will be mailed to the addresses you send. A fair record will be kept of all you do and send us.

Let your friends know your desire to compete and they will help you. Send anything you think will help THE GEORGIA TEACHER to Atlanta, Ga., or THE FLORIDA JOURNAL to Jacksonville, Fla, The contest and decision shall be fair.

A message transmitted from San Francisco to Hong Kong, goes via New York, Canso, Penzance, Aden, Bombay, Madras, Penang, and Singapore, and takes about fifteen minutes time. Trace this route on your map.

IRON corrodes with great rapidity at or about the temperature of boiling water

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