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When the president appointed Mr. Nebeker to that position the money of Uncle Sams had to be counted.

This was no easy task. 45,000 tons of coin besides 300,000,000 in bank and treasury notes.

There is one vault which contains eighty-five millions of of silver dollars. Its size is 100 feet long, 60 feet feet wide, and 14 feet high.

Another room contains twenty-five millions in gold and sixty millions in silver.

One thousand dollars is placed in a bag; it is weighed, sealed and stored away.

When counting the money these bags are weighed; if fouud correct, the bag is not broken.

The bank notes, treasury notes, and gold and silver certificates are done up in packages of 4,000 notes each.

If the denomination be $ 20, how much money in a package ? If $100?

Once there was a package of 10,000 dollar bills. How much was there?

Tell how this money is guarded. Name the mints of the United States and locate each.

Have we sub-treasuries? If so, where are they, and how many? What is an assay office?

Tell how the paper money is destroyed.



Five hundred million of the earth's population live in houses.
Seven hundred millions of the dwellers on the globe live in huts and


Seven hundred millions of the world's people never cover only portions of their bodies.

Two hundred and fifty millions of living human beings on the earth virtually have no shelter.

Two hundred and fifty millions of human beings wear nothing--in other words, habitually go naked.

Five hundred million of the inhabitants of the globe are well clothed-that they wear garmeuts of some kind.


"I am not a teacher, and with diffidence therefore do I speak of practical methods. But, speaking somewhat after the manner of the doctrinaire, I may say that from the elementary to the very highest devolopment of geography I would still keep in sight the great fact that man is the center, the converging point, of all geographical inquiry and teaching. Indeed, the more elementary the stage, the more would I bring man into prominence, for I am quite convinced that young people would obtain a more interesting view of geography, a better introduction to the ultimate results of that study, by following this method. The relation between the earth and man can be made of such supassing interest, can be so well illustrated by pictures, photographs, models, specimens and the like, that I am sure any teacher find it far easieras it would be more geographically correct-to talk to his class about man as he appears under various geographical conditions than to discuss merely the physical characteristics of the earth's surface without any regard to the inhabitants upon that surface. example, what an interesting and informing course of lessons might be given on man in the regions of snow, man in the temperate climates and man in the tropical. How easy it would be to show the pupil the huts and garb of the Laplander, and to point out how his food and his method of communication are regulated by the natura conditions of that portion of the earth's surface. On the other hand how interesting to the young to exhibit to them pictures of a man as he appears, we will say, in Tropical Africa, surrounded by a luxuriant vegitation, so luxuriant, indeed, as to retard the development of his character by too ready provision of all the nessities of life.


"When we have to explain the meaning of hill and valley, river and plain, take the young people, if possible, in the near country, and let them observe the surface features of their own locality. Only in this way can realistic teaching be secured; only when they realize what hill, valley and river are in themselves shall we get them to appreciate the value of their influence in the aggregate on the development of nations. Of course it would add greatly to the value of the practical instruction if the teacher used an ordnance survey map of his district. He could then point out to the children not only where they are and what the country beyond their ken is like, but he would

also be able to show them in a very direct manner the cartographer's symbols for nature's features. Moreover, though at a later stage, perhaps, he would be able to show them what contours mean, and, as in Germany, he might find little eifficulty in getting his pupils to make up mode's for themselves by cutting out slips on cardboard and pasting them one upon the other according to the contours. In fact, I noticed in Germany a most instructive lesson in geography carried on after fashion :-The teacher had a pile of sand in front of him and from the map, guided by its contours, he was making up a model of the school locality. The children, on the other hand, from sheets of thin cardboard were making up—also from the map-little paper models of school locality, and I was much struck by the enthusiam with which they pursued their task, and by the intelligence they displayed in translating the symbols of the map. But there is one thing I would wish to point out here. No hard and fast line should be laid down as to the actual teaching of geography; for it is quite possible that what can be suitable to a school in one locality may be unsuitable to a school in another. With an intelligent, well trained, well informed teacher the method best suited to this locale would be sure to suggest itself."

"How would you use maps, and what sort of maps would you use?

"The first requirement in teaching geography is a thorougly good physical map. Of course every school should have a physical map both of the parish and of the county in which it is situated hung upon its walls. With a physical map I would use pictures, so as to help the young to realize what the symbols of the map indicate. For example, it would be very instructive, after drawing the attention of the class to a large scale map of India, to show them views of the Himalayas, of the Ganges, of the Sunderbans. I need hardly tell you that on the continent they thoroughly realize the importance of maps, and in some schools the albums of geographical pictures are full of the most interesting illustrations of every possible aspect of Geography. In several schools all the chief illustrated perodicals of the world are taken in, in order to procure pictures for the geographical albums.

"Let no text-book, in the ordinary sense of that word, be used; let the teacher be everything. 1 do not object to geographical cards in which a few essential facts are well summarized, nor, indeed, to a very

small primer of geography to which children may turn in order to refer more readily to certain facts; but for all the life, for all the detail, for all the picturesqueness, for all the instructiveness of geographical description, I would look to the teacher. Most undoubtedly, at the earlier stages of geographical teaching, the teacher is everything, the text-book nothing.

Goldthwaite's Geographical Magazine.


It appears that our race, having passed successively through the ages of stone, bronze and iron, is about to enter the age of aluminum. The theoretical stage has gone by and we may now expect to see this wonderful metal come into use for a great variety of uses. A few years ago aluminum could not be had for less than $20 a pound; now it is announced that a firm at Cleveland has reduced the price to $1 a pound. At this price it will be desirable for a great number of purposes because of its beauty and its valuable qualities. And it is not to be doubted that it will be sold at no distant day at a price that will render it a formidable rival of iron for nearly all purposes for which iron is now used.

The article produced at $1 a pound by Cowles, of Cleveland, is termed "aluminum bronze." Presumably it contains some other element which affects the silvery whiteness of the aluminum, but not its other qualites. And now a rival appears at Chicago ih the person of Professor J. M. Hirsh, who promises to supply the world with the same metal at fifteen cents a pound. His process involves the use of electricity. The price is governed almost entirely by the cost of extracting it from clay, and, by the constant experimentation, it is probable that the cost ultimately will not be greater than that of iron.

A leading consideration in regard to aluminum is the fact that it is the most abundant metal in the world. It abounds in every bed of clay, so that practically all the labor and cost of mining are done away with. And it does not seem probable that very expensive plants will be needed for its mannfacture. As to the utility of the metal, if it possesses the qualities attributed to it, it promises to work a revolution in the use of metal and to effect radical changes in numerous industries. It is lighter than glass and only one-fourth as heavy as steel, yet it possesses a great rigidity and tenacity,

and, if properly prepared, it is as hard as steel. At the same time it is very malleable and ductile; it can be beaten as thin as gold leaf or wrought into wire as fine as a spider's web.

Aluminum does not oxidize under any circumstances, nor tarnish even by exposure to sulphuretted hydrogen, which so quickly blackens silver. Next to its extreme lightness its greatest advantage over iron consists in the fact that it is not affected by moisture. Hence, as it never rusts, there is no need of converging it with paint or other preparations.

It is believed that when aluminum can be substituted for iron it will revolutionize ocean and inland navigation. The weight of ships could be reduced one-half, and their hulls, being sheathed with a non-corrodible, polished metal, would offer far less resistance to the water than at present. It is predicted that ships constructed of aluminum in place of iron could cross the ocean in three days. Then, too, such ships would accommodate a far greater weight of cargo, and their draught might be greatly reduced. The latter consideration would be of vast importance on inland waters. The length of navigable water-ways would be very greatly increased.

When aluminum comes into common use as surprising changes may be expected as have resulted from the use of electricity as a source of motion and light. Perhaps during the decade just commenced the uses of aluminnm may be developed to as great an extent as those of electricity have deen during the last ten years.


The chinese have as odd ideas about the earth and the origin of man as they have about other things with which they, as well as ourselves, are better acquainted. According to their way of reckoning, the rocks of the earth are the bones of the Divine body; the soil is the flesh; the metals, the nerves and the veins. The tide, wind, rain, clouds, as well as or frost and dew, are caused by the resprirations, pulsations and exhalations of this seeming inanimate body. Originally, the mountains rose to the skies and the seas covered the mountains to their tops. At that time there was no life in the Divine body except the Divine life. Then the waters subsided; small herbs grew, and, in the lapse of cycles, developed into shrubs and trees.

As the body of man, unwashed for years, breeds vermin, so the mountains, unlaved by the seas, bred worms and insects, greater creatures

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