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developing out of lesser. Beetles, in the course of ages, became turtles; earth worms became serpents and high flying insects became birds, ergets becoming cranes, etc. Then wild-cats became tigers, the mantis was by degrees transformed into an ape, and some of the apes became hairless. A hairless ape accidentally made a fire by striking a crystal against a flint. With the fire thus made they cooked food. Eating cooked victuals made them large, strong and knowing.

With all its faults, the above is even more reasonable than many of the ideas advanced by the Darwinian evolutionists.-St. Louis Republic.

"HEAT" LIGHTNING A MISNOMER.

"There is no such thing as heat lightning in contradtstinction to chain lightning, which aecompanies a storm," a naval officer tells a Washington reporter. "By the term 'heat lightning,' so frequently and incorrectly used, people refer to the sheet-like flashes which they see off in the distance, usually near the horizon, and which are so far away that no thunder can be heard.

"Now, the fact of the matter is, what they really see is simply a reflection in the clouds or sky of the regular chain lightning attending a ocal storm miles and miles away. Very often on a sultry night you will notice these flashes, or rather their reflections, in several different directions. This is because there are thunder storms in progress all about us. The distance from which the reflection of these flashes can be seen dopends largely upon the conditiou of the atmosphere. When it is well saturated with moisture these reflections, which appear as 'sheet iightning,' so called, are visible many miles, and if you are sufficiently near you would hear the report and soon become convinced that there is no such thing as 'heat lightning' unaccompanied by thunder."

TEA MOMENCLATURE.

Bohea is the name of the hills in China among which that tea is grown; Pekoc means "white hair," in reference to to the downy appearance of tender leaves; Hyson means "before the rain," or "flourishing spring ;" Souchong is "small plant;" Congo-misspelt Congou-means labor, and is expressive of the extra care taken in the preparation of that kind of tea. There are two principal varieties of the tea plant. Thea bohea is that which is cultivated in the black tea country, the district adjacent to Canton. Thea viridis is grown in the northern, or what is called the green tea district of China. The difference in the color and flavor in teas arises from drying and manipulation.-Courier Journal.

A NEGRO'S PRAYER.

A teacher in one of the colored schools at the south was about to go away for a season, and an old negro poured out for her the following fervent petitions, which we coppy from a private letter. "I give you his words," said the writer, "but they convey no idea of the pathos and earnestness of the prayer: 'Go afore her as lead in light, and behind her as a protecting angel.

Rough shod her feet wid de preparation ob de gospel o' peace. Nail her ear the gospel pole. Gib her de eye ob de eagle dats she spy out sin far off. Wax her hand to de gospel plow. Tie her to the line ob truf. Keep her feet in the narrer way and her soul in de channel of faith. Bow her head low beneaf her knees, an' her knees way down in some lonesome valley where prayer and supplication is much wanted to be made. Hedge an ditch bout her, good Lord, an keep her in de strait an narrer way dat leads to heafen."

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The Flemish mile is 6,869 yards.

The Vienna post mile is 8,296 yards.
The Roman mile is 1,628 or 2,025 yards.
The Werst mile is 1,167 or 1,337 yards.
The Dutch and Prussian mile is 6,480 yards.

Success presupposes conditions and preparations for it-the energy self-sacrifice, and self-abnegation which brings brawn and breadth and dignity, strength and wisdom and skill. We cannot safely jump into success; we are likely to get hurt, and soon fall back disheartened o where we belong. Some try to succeed by jumping into their father's shoes, but these shoes do not fit, and cause the young man to

walk so awkwardly he generally makes a fool of himself. Nearly everythihg of real worth has to be earned. To be appreciated and judiciously appropiated, our possesions must have cost us their value. The very toil and struggle and plodding that bring solid gain bring also the mature experience, thorough discipline, and hard knocks that make up stalwart manhood and permanent success.-İTEMS OF IN

TEREST.

THE VENERABLE GRADUATE.

He enters his college at twenty, and is through at twenty-four;
The law school claims the graduate-he studies three years more;
His shingle flutters to the breeze at twenty-seven, and still

He fights for clients three years more-his father foots the bill,

At thirty-four his debts are paid—that is, if he's alive

And the college man begins to live at the age of thirty-five;

And his dome of thought protrude through his hair, and his beard is streaked with gray And the maid he loved in youth has become a matron with children at play.

Byron has writteu some very good vese and died, and been ranked with the great, At about the age you begin to live, you irresolute graduate,

And Artemus Ward had tickled the world until it held it's breath,

Until the voice of its laughter was hushed in the awful stillness of death!

And Keats had made himself classic, and died, and mouloered and crumbled away
And Shakespear had writ certain comedy plays that won't be forgot in a day;
And Shelly has made himself famous with song-immortal at thirty he died;
Alexandet had fought and conquered the world, and died and was deified.
But you have studied quadratics and roots, and Sanscrit, and Latin, and Greek,
And various tongues of the ancient world that are far too dead to speak;
But you have lost the glory of the fray and the glorious joy of the strife,
Nor tasted the sweet of the meat of the world, nor the juice of the vintage of life.
-S. W. Foss in the Yankee Blade.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING.

I beleive that a vast amount of good may be accomplished in our schools in the human work of prevention of cruelty to animals, by the selection of stories for supplementary reading that will create in the minds of the pupils a deeper feeling of sympathy and justice for the animals.

"Black Beauty," the Autobiography of a Horse, is a very useful and entertaining book. I adopted it in my school last winter, reading a little from it each day directly after the opening exercises, and I nearly always found my pupils in their seats at the proper time ready to listen to his interesting story. They had frequent discussions on this subject even the little ones voluntarily taking part in the exercise sometimes relating little stories of their own experience. I think they enjoyed writing compositions from these readings better than any other.

Let us avail ourselves of the opportunity afforded us in thus advancing this humane Mrs. L. B. Nichols.

cause.

TEACHERS SALARIES IN EUROPE.

(Special teachers and teachers of high schools not considered.)

In Prussia the average salary in the country is $256; in the cities $319. To these cash salaries should be added twenty per cent. for rent and fuel, which is free to teachers. They either live in dwellings especially built for the accommodation of teachers, or in lieu of a dwelling a supplementary payment is made; hence the salaries may be said to range between $300 and $370. Principals of buildings, of course, get more-between $400 and $800.

In Saxony the beginning is $190. If the school has more than forty pupils the salary is raised progressively to $323. Principals receive a minimum salary varying according to the population; thus in towns with less thah 5,000 inhabitants, $450; in towns of 5,000 to 10,000 inhabitants, $563; in towns of more than 10,000 inhabitants, $675.

In Wertemberg the scale of salaries rises from $225 to $500.

Hessia gives its teachers in the cities of less than 10,000 inhabitants from $225 to $450, and in larger cities from $300 to $550. Women get between $225 and $420.

The minimum salary in Bavaria is $200, the maximum $211, according to size of town. To that is added an annual increase according to length of service which ends when $300 per annum is reached.

In Baden the communities are divided into five classes with reference to salaries: 1, $195; 2, $210; 3, $340; 4, $270; 5, $300. In larger cities higher salaries are paid.

Here are mentioned a few cities of Germany, with two columns, showing minimum and maximum salaries of teachers (not principals) of elementary schools:

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Switzerland averages: Basel, $643; Zurich, $456; Geneva, $438; Neuchatel, $388; Wallis, $369; Schaffhausen, $350; Glarus, $322. Some cantons make additional payments.

Belgium-Minimum for teachers, $240; assistants $200.

Netherlands-Law fixes the minimum for principals at $294, for teachers at $252, assistants $169.

Sweden-Salaries rise from $140 to $168 within five years of service. In some localities teachers get $380.

Norway-The lowest salaries are $185, the highest $400.

Denmark-The lowest is $224, the average is $280. In some localities $392 is paid.

Greece-Salaries $16, $20 or $28 per month, independent of an annual sum of from twenty cents to one dollar per capita of pupils. Turkey-A monthly salary of $37 if licensed, but only $21 if without diploma.

Italy brings us back to low averages: $112 and $244, with an increase of ten per cent. every six years.

Spain-Salaries according to population: $111 is the minimum $370 the maximum.

Russia-Average salary $97 per annum. (!).

Portugal-Minimum salary $113 per annum, and an addition for regular attendance. After the first six years an increase of 25 per cent. of the minimum salary is given.

England-Of 15,243 male teachers only 211 had the minimum salary of $250; the others ranged between $250 and $1,500. Of 22,434 women 1,394 had the minimum of $200; the others ranged between $200 and $1,000.

Scotland and Ireland-Substantially the same salaries are paid to teachers which are paid in England.

Of course the fact must be considered that the purchasing power of money is greater in Europe than with us, but, even with due `regard to that, a teacher's salary may be said to be low in Europe.

MRS. JOHN B. SHIPLEY'S BOOK.

"The Icelandic discoveries in America," by Mrs. John B. Shipley (John B. Alden, publisher, New York. The object of this work is to prove indisputably that North America was discovered by Vikings and their descendents some five hundred years before the time of Columbus, and that Columbus himself, on a voyage to Iceland, obtained the positive knowledge which induced his subsequent voyage and the discovery and opening of America to civilization. Mrs. Snipley quotes a number of writers to strengthen her in this position, together with extracts from Icelandish sagas. The conclusion of

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