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his salery. These school boards put themselves in the same attitude toward teachers that the dying father did toward his son when he gave him this parting advice: "John you must make money honestly, if you can, but make money.

Teachers are requested to make an average, honestly, if they can, but make an average. Usually, these school boards are fully alive to the horrible sin of a teachers making a false report, but it seems never to have occurred to such school boards that they themselves have taken the initiative in this wicked business of offering an inducǝment or bribe to these teachres to falsify their reports. It is well said that "Offenses must needs come but woe unto him by whom they come"

If we analyze this system to its ultimate results, it is easily seen that the only object or excuse for its existence is rendered nugatory, since the special class of teachers it is designed to react and disci. pline, are the very last ones usually affected by it. They too generally follow the advice given to "Son John"-"honestly, if they can" but they aim to "get there." Thus, the true, consciencious teacher is the only one adversely affected by it. In plain English, this systom pays a premium for lying and punishes those who have the manhood to tell the truth. D. M. PUTERBAUGH.


Within the past few years a great change has taken place in the primary work of our schools by the introduction of manual training, and modern teachers are beginning to see that the head and hand must be trained in unison with each other, and that a systematic use of the hands is an important means of mental training.

Among the many materials used to assist in this hand training clay holds one of the highest places.

Clay is easily handled, take any form desired, and it can be used by children of all ages, from the little one of six, to the big boy of twelve.

It is also quite inexpensive, particularly so here in Florida, where there is such a plentiful supply close at hand. In some respects this Florida clay is preferable to that procured from the North.

Clay modelling accomplishes three things. It trains the hands and the eye, teaching the child to observe closely and accuriately; it develops creative powers, and it firmly fixes on the child's mind the ifferent forms of the geometrical solids.

Thus in, the studying cube, the child handles it, notices the number of corners, faces, etc. but soon all this passes from his memory. When, however, he has made a cube studied 'attentively all these points, has seen for himself how even all the parts must be to have a perfect whole, it will become so firmly fixed on his mind that time. will never obliterate it.

Some persons ooject to clay being used in schools on the ground that it soils the children's clothes, and books. But if the clay is properly mixed, carefully distributed and the child is taught that he must be as neat with this work as with any other, there will be no cause for this complaint.


In clay moddeling it is best to begin with the sphere. before each child a piece of clay and a sphere, (a marble will do if you have not a regular toy of forms,) and let him take the sphere and examine it attentivetively. Let him now tell you the different points he sees, how that it is perfectly round, will roll in any direction etc: then let him take the clay and make as exact a copy as possible of model.

In moddelling a sphere the clay should be rolled between the palms, the fingers turned back. When a perfect sphere has been made let the happy artist divide it in halves by means of a fine wire the result of course is two hemispheres. It would be well to have the child learn the correct names at once of the different forms he is making, and if old enough, to learn to write and spell them.

From the sphere can be made vegetables, such as onions, turnips, squashes and tomatoes; and fruits, such as apples, grapes, cherries, peaches and plums. Occasionly I would let the child have free range and follow his own taste and individuality. Once one of my pupils modeled a croquet set, of course from memory, having the requisite number of mallet balls and hoops, and even made the box to put the set in, unfortunately however the box was made smaller than the mallets and hoops.

Next in order to the sphere is the cube. This is made by first modelidg the sphere and then flattening it for the sides. From the cube can be made boxes, flower pots, dice, etc.

In making a cube it is necessary to have a modeling knife. These can be bought for 25 cents a dozen or you can have your boys whittle them out of soft wood. These knives should be about six inches long with one end rounded and the other end sharply pointed.


After the cube comes the cylinder.

This is evolved from the sphere by elongating it and flattening the ends. From the cylender we have the cane, stick of candy, tall hat, rolling pin, lead pencil. After the sphere, cube, and cylinder are thoroughly learned let the child model the square prism, oblong cylinder, spheroid pyramid and cone, and let him also model objects resembling these forms.

They are easily found and I will not take up your time by naming them. All this work that I have spoken of can be made by the pupils in the first and second readers.

As to the older pupils or those who are already familiar with these forms, I would have them make a tile about 4 inches square and about a fourth of an inch thick, smooth this with the mobelling knife and neatly trim the edges. Now, with the aid of the knife or a sharp stick, let them draw on the surface, squares, or right angle rhomboids isosceles triangles, exquilatural triangles, trapezoids, or any other design you may wish him to make. These designs can remain on the tile or can be cut out with the aid of a sharp knife Quite a pattern is to draw on the tile sixteen squares and then cut out every one. Or draw four triangles and cut out two. Many pot tery forms can be made by these older pupils. I have here but hastily sketched the various uses clay can be put to in the schoolroom. The subject is a very extensive one, and my time being short of course I have condensed a great deal. I hope, however, that these few hints will be of practical use to you and that soon you will all be using clay in your schools with marked success.



At a school which we attended a few years ago the president would say each year that the various classes of the school were better that year than they had ever been before, and perhaps this was true, for each year his preparation and conveniences were better than they had been before. So if we make the same assertion concerning our schools this year it will be true because the teachers are better, and the schoos are better, because they have made themselvs better. Our Normal at Eustis gave them opportunities for improvement which they did not neglect. The average attendance of nearly all small schools is within one or two of the enrollment, and the school at Lady Lake with an enrollment of 62 had an average attendance of 61

All schools of the county will hold examination at the end of each month. The county school board furnishes blank reports to each teacher, and also tabulated report form on which the teacher sends the grades of all pupils to the county superintendent. Prof. Hoyt, of Altoona has just completed a magnificent chart of natural history. It is in the form of a very large, handsome tree. Its trunk is labeled the empire of nature. This divides into three main branches, the animal, the vegetable and mineral kingdom. These are again divided and subdivided many times, showing a complete classification of each kingdom, and on the small branches and twigs of the trees are written the hundreds of species of each kingdom. In the earth below the tree are shown the various geological strata and the minerals and soils contained therein; also the fossiliferous formation and beds in their proper position. The chart is a manual of art and information, the latter in a condensed and systematic form.

Mr. Editor:



Will you allow a "Stay at Home" a few words in your valuable JOURNAL in regard to schools and school matters in Orange?

Speaking of the "Journal" reminds me that while in the Superintendents office last evening I asked, "Why is it I have not received my July and August numbers of said JOURNAL, you see Brother Orr, I belong to the "stay at home" crowd and I miss it.

The answer of Judge Beeks was perfectly satisfacfory, and you are excuseable, but the circumstance calls to mind a remark made by Hon. Mr. Belly, state commissioner of Immigration, in his speech before the Orange County worlds fair convention, lately. The truthfulness of the statement impressed me deeply. It was, "that the industrial advancements of Florida must depend, at least to a large extent, upon the "Stay at Homes"

Our school board, ever a live to the interests of the teacher's and children, especially, the latter) have not been idle during the summer months, but have met from time to time elected teacher's for the 90 schools in the county and devised various wise plans for the advancements of her educational interests,—not the least of which is the organization of a "Normal Training School for Teacher's" to be conducted in Orlando the last two weeks of September. The edict of the


board is in the imperative mood, so I suppose we "Stay at Homes" at least will be on hand.

Professor U. J. Hoffman and Miss C. Lieuellen are to be the instructors, and from their reputation, we teacher's look forward to the occasion with anticipations of both pleasure and profit.

I trust there may be a full attendance of teacher's, and that we shall go from the training room to the school room fully armed and equipped to do more and better work than ever before.

Our venerable Superintendent, Judge Beeks, is our official, who is always found at his post, from early morn to dewy eve (cause he's cripple) always polite, full of work, and ever ready to give information or render any assistance in his power.

Upon the whole, I think I can safely say that education in Orange County is on the up grade. More anon.

Yours truly.

A Teacher (W. G. Johnson.)


Early in the session of the late Escambia County (Fla.) Institute Captain W. D. Chipley, of Pensacola, Fla., invited the teachers, officials and friends to enjoy a ride on the bay.

At the appointed hour, 3:30 p. m,, Wednesday, September 30, 1891, a large crowd boarded the magnificent steamer, Echo. During three hours ride over the grand Pensacola bay and out into the great waters of the gulf the generous-hearted host could be seen the center and inspiration of numerous groups of teachers and friends.

On the return historic Fort Pichens was visited by the entire company. In its war-worn walls, as well as on its ivy grown embattlements, there is much to elicit profound thought, and still more to stir the soul to its inmost depths, as the eye takes in the outspread, ever moving, majestic gulf.

From these great lessons of both God and man the jolly band returned to find on the boat a sumptuous lunch room, where cake and cream in great abundance filled the tables.

As the evening shades were coming on apace the delighted teachers disembarked at the foot of Halafax street, hardly able to settle in their minds which-whether the varying scenes of the excursion or the generous efforts of Captain Chipley to please them-challenged the more their thought and admiration.

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