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23.— The Jubilee Memorial ; being the Sermons, Meetings,
Presentations, and a full account of the Jubilee, commemorating the Rev. William Jay's fifty years Ministry at Argyle Chapel, Bath. New York: Robert Carter. 1841. pp. 179.
The title of this work explains its character. In the month of January last, Mr. Jay, as many of our readers are aware, completed the fiftieth year of his useful ministry at Bath. The last Sabbath of the month was observed by appropriate services; Mr. Jay preached in the morning and Rev. Mr. East, of Birmingham, in the evening. On the Tuesday following, a meeting was held, at which £650 were presented by the congregation to their venerable pastor, and several addresses made. The sermons preached upon the Sabbath, together with a full account of the Presentation meeting, are contained in this volume. It is seldom that a jubilee of so much interest is commemorated ; and the numerous admirers of Mr. Jay in this country, we have no doubt, will read this memorial of the event with pleasure.
RECENT LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.
Great Britain. Part I. of Dr. Trail's new Translation of Josephus is soon to appear, containing the Life of Josephus by himself; the principal scenes in the successive Nos. are to be illustrated by views taken by an artist who visits them for this purpose.--Mr. Fellowes' book, giving an account of his discoveries in Lycia during a second excursion to Asia Minor, is said to justify the expectations excited by the announcement of his intended revisit. It contains a description of 11 cities not upon any map, many coins hitherto unknown, a great variety of illustrations, etc.-Mr. Buck. ingham's " America, Historical, Statistic and Descriptive” has appeared in England. From the account given of it by the London journals, it seems to possess some of the characteristics of the Lectures on Egypt and Palestine.
Among the recent publications, we notice McKrie's Life of Knox, with numerous Additions and Corrections, and a vindication of Knox from the charge of being implicated in Rizzio's murder; Records of Female Piety, comprising Sketches of the Lives and Extracts from the Writings of Women eminent for religious excellence, by James A. Huie ; a Church Dictionary by Dr. Hook, being Part IV. of the new series of Leeds Tracts; the Mécanique Céleste of La Place, translated, with a Commentary, by Dr. Bowditch, 4 vols. 4to.; Logicæ Artis Com. pendium, by Robert Sanderson ; Hon. Mrs. Damer's Tour in Greece, Turkey, Egypt and the Holy Land; a new and enlarged edition of Montgomery's Poetical Works A new edition of Flügel's German Dictionary is in the press.
Germany. The Nov. No. of the Hall. Allg. Lit-Zeitung contains a notice of Dr. George Christian Knapp's Biblical Theology. Dr. Knapp is the author of Lectures on Christian Theology, translated several years since by Pres. Woods. The Biblical Theology is published by Dr. Guerike, without alteration, from the MS. Jeft by the author. The reviewer thinks this work will be as well received as the Lectures on Christian Theology. -A new quarterly periodical has been commenced at Leipsic, of which Drs. Rudeībach and Guerike are the editors. It is called : “ Zeitschrift für die gesammte lutherische Theologie und Kirche." Each No. is to contain a running account of all the theological works which have appeared during the preceding quarter. The leading article of the first No. is on the Inspiration of the Scriptures by Rudelbach. The later opinions in Germany on this subject are reviewed. The article is unfinished. The History of the European States, edited by Heeren and Ukert and published by Perthes, has already reached 34 volumes and 7 are in the press. It is intended to be a standard work.--Schelling has been appointed to an office in the department of Justice at Berlin, with liberty to give what lectures he pleases.-A professorship of modern Greek literature has been established at Berlin, and Dr. J. Franz has been appointed to fill it; he has promised to aid in the continuation of Prof. Böckh's Corpus Inscriptionum Græcorum.—The small kingdom of Saxony contains 63 printing establishments ; 46 for lithographic printing, and 9 for copper-plate. Of these Leipsic alone is said to contain 39, with 120 common presses and 10 printing machines.
By the latest accounts from Germany, we learn the number of students in the several universities. At Bonn there were 594, of whom 120 were foreigners ; 87 (foreign 41) were connected with the Protestant theological department, and 89 (foreign 1) with the Catholic theological department. At Breslau there were 631 students, of whom 7 were foreigners ; 106 (foreign 1) were attending to Protestant theology, and 114 to Catholic theology. At Enlangen there were 311 students, 18 of them foreigners ; 145 were attending to theology. At Freiburg there were 301 students, 87 were foreigners ; 95 (foreign 25) were studying theology. At Giessen there were 407 students, including 76 foreigners. At Göttingen there were 704 students, 431 being foreigners ; 167 (foreign 31) were in the department of theology. At Halle there were 682 students, 144 of them were foreigners ; 420 (foreign 92) were attending to theology. At Heidelberg the number of students was 614. At Königsberg there were 390 students, 26 of them being foreigners; 114 (foreign 5) were in the theological department. At Leipsic there were 935 students ; 276 were foreigners and 254 were studying theology. At Marburg the number of students was 285, foreigners 49; 67 (foreign 10) beinglin the theological department. At Tübingen there were 739 students, foreigners 52 ; pursuing Protestant theology 145, Catholic theology 62.
France. The theological faculty at Montauban is arranged as follows :-M. Jalaguier is Professor of Dogmatic Theology, M. de Felice of Evangelical Morality, M. Montet, Sen. of Ecclesiastical History, M. A. Monod of Hebrew, M. Encontre of Latin and Greek Literature, M. Nicolas of Natural and Intellectual Philosophy.-Prof. Boutriche has just published his Comparative and Historical Picture of Ancient and Modern Religions, the Principal Religious Sects and Schools of Philosophy.-M. Firmin Didot is publishing a Bibliothèque Grecque in 50 large volumes. It is to contain the chefs d'æuvre of the Greek poets, historians, orators, philosophers, with Josephus and the Septuagint, with a Latin translation, and Indices Rerum et Nominum. Some 10 to 15 vols. have already appeared ; among them Homer's Iliad, Odyssey, Hymns and Fragments in 1 vol. price 12 fr. 50c., Xenophon complete in 1 vol. 15fr., Aristophanes, Menander, Philemon in 1 vol. Each vol. may be had separately.
-A bill to extend the right of literary property has been rejected in the Chamber of Deputies, 158 to 108.—The Libraire d'Education, by Victor Boreau and L. F. Hivert, is advancing towards its completion; the History of France in 2 vols., by Boreau, the History of England, by Boreau and Lafon, the History of Russia, by Duchiron, the History of Poland, by Cynske, the History of Italy, by Boreau and Duchiron; and the History of Germany, by Boreau, have already appeared.
Africa. A prospectus has been issued of a curious lithographic work, to be published in Nos. at Algiers. It is to consist of views of the Christian remains of the ancient African Church, with notes from the bishop lately appointed by the Pope for that colony. No. I. will contain a view of the ruins of the Basilica of Peace, at Hippona.
United States. The Second Edition of Prof. Stuart's N. Test. Grammar is in the press ; most of it has been written anew; and the remainder revised and corrected. John F. Trow has a new edition of Edwards' Works in the press, under the supervision of a distinguished New-England divine, based on the old Worcester edition, with additions and improvements from the English edition and other sources ; to be comprised in 4 vols. and furnished at a reduced price. D. Appleton & Co. will shortly publish Palmer's Treatise on the
Church, edited by the
Rt. Rev. Bishop Whittingham; Early English Church, by the Rev. Edward Churton, edited by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Ives ; Disce Viveri,-Learn to Live, by Dr. Sutton ; John Angel James' Widow directed to the Widow's God'; also his Happiness,—its Nature and Sources ; Lectures on Spiritual Christianity, by Isaac Taylor, author of Natural History of Enthusiasm ; Blunt's Family Commentary on Genesis; Practical Christian and Devout Penitent, by Sherlock; Life of Napoleon, with 500 illustrations, 2 vols. ; Lockhart's Spanish Ballads; The Hannahs, a continuation of the Lady's Closet Library; by Robert Philip.
SECOND SERIES, NO. XII.-WHOLE NO, XLIV.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE GNOSTICS :The MANICHÆAN HERESY,
AND INFLUENCE OF GNOSTICISM ON CHRISTIANITY.
By the Rev. George B. Cheever, Pastor of the Allen-street Pres. Church, New-York.
MANES AND THE MANICHÆAN HERESY.
Our present investigation takes up the subject just at the point where it was left in the previous article on Gnosticism by Mr. Henry T. Cheever, to which the reader may refer in the number of this journal for October, 1840.
The principal authorities consulted or followed in these pages are those of Cyril, Epiphanius, Augustine, Titus of Bostra, with the Acts of Archelaus, among the ancients, and D'Herbelot, Beausobre, Lardner, Mosheim, Brucker, Michaelis, Tenneman and some others among the moderns. The greater part of ancient Christian writers have drawn their accounts of the founder of the Manichæan heresy from one and the same source,—the book of the Acts of Archelaus, bishop of Cascar in Mesopotamia, purporting to contain an account of his conference or dispute with Manes. This book Jerome makes mention of, (De Viris Illustribus,) saying that Archelaus, in the reign of the Emperor Probus, composed it in Syriac, which was afterwards translated into Greek. Cyril, Epiphanius, Socrates, Photius and others either quote largely from it, or refer to it, and Socrates states expressly that he drew from it his own acSECOND SERIES, VOL. VI. NO. II.
count of the Manichæan heresy.* It was edited at Rome, by Laurentius Zacagnius, in the year 1698, in the Collectanea Monumentorum Veterum, with a valuable preface. The reader may find it, with this and other illustrative prolegomena, in the fourth volume of Routh's Reliquiæ Sacræ. The short passage in which Eusebius mentions Manes and his heresy contains no reference to this book;—a circumstance which led Beausobre to the opinion that it had not appeared in Greek, till after Eusebius composed and published his Ecclesiastical History. That it is of great antiquity, and in some things worthy of credit, there can be no doubt, though falsehood mingles with it. Mosheim's opinion is as follows: Hæc Acta .... multa continent, aut valde probabilia aut vero consentientia.f Beausobre argues somewhat like a special pleader, and regards the book of the Acts of Archelaus as a romance, fabricated by a Greek, who had got some materials for a memoir, and published them in the name of Archelaus, in the year 330, about sixty years after the death of Manes. Nevertheless, the epistle of Manes to Marcellus, though contained in that work, Beausobre regards as authentic, and supposes it to have been written in Greek, whence he infers that Manes understood that language.
Eusebius, in his slight notice of Manes and his heresy, is pithy and severe, or, as Lardner expresses it, (whose leaning towards the heretics is always that of kindness, a thing, we admit, under such circumstances, both just and necessary in order to be impartial,) “much out of humour.” So, indeed, are all the old Christian writers; and taking their account of the scheme of Manes as at all correct, they could not well be otherwise. Cyril declares that he “blended together what was bad in every heresy, and being the lowest pit of destruction, collected the doctrines of all the heretics, and wrought out and set forth a yet more novel error."I The reader may get a fair view of the opinions of the early church by turning to Baronius, who, in the first volume of his Annals, collects from Cyril, Epiphanius, Augustine and others, a black and hideous representation of the system and its author. The sum of the opinions and feelings prevalent in regard to it may be found in a passage
* Socrates Hist. Ecc. ch. 22.
† Prolegomena to the Acts, in Routh's Reliquiæ Sacræ. Vol. IV. p. 134.
# Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechesis, 16, § 9.