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magnificent temple in America? It is easy for us to maintain her doctrine, at this late day, when there is but one party on the subject, an immense people. But what tribute shall we bestow, what sacred pæan shall we raise over the tombs of those who dared, in the face of unrivalled power, and within the reach of majesty, to blow the blast of freedom throughout a subject continent ?

6. Nor did those brave countrymen of ours only express the emotions of glory; the nature of their principles inspired them with the power of practice; and they offered their bosoms to the shafts of battle. Bunker's awful mount is the capacious urn of their ashes; but the flaming bounds of the universe could not limit the flight of their minds.

7. They fled to the union of kindred souls; and those who fell at the streights of Thermopylæ, and those who bled on the heights of Charlestown, now reap congenial joys in the fields of the blessed.



THE great events on which my resignation

depended having at length taken place, I have now the honour of offering my sincere congratulations to Congress, and of presenting myself before them to surrender into their hands the trust committed to me, and to claim the indulgence of retiring from the service of my country.

2. Happy in the confirmation of our independence and sovereignty, and pleased with the opportunity afforded the United States of becoming a respectable nation, I resign, with satisfaction, the appointment I accepted with diffidence; a diffidence in my abilities to accomplish so arduous a task, which, however, was superseded by a confidence in the rectitude of our cause, the support of the supreme power of the Union, and the patronage of Heaven.

3. The successful termination of the war has verified the most sanguine expectations; and my gratitude for the interposition of Providence, and the assistance I have re

ceived from my countrymen, increases with every review of the momentous contest.

4. While I repeat my obligations to the army in general, I should do injustice to my own feelings not to acknowledge, in this place, the peculiar services and distinguished merits of the gentlemen who have been attached to my person during the war.

5. It was impossible the choice of confidential officers to compose my family should have been more fortunate. Permit me, Sir, to recommend in particular those who have continued in the service to the present moment, as worthy of the favourable notice and patronage of Congress.

6. I consider it as an indispensable duty to close this last solemn act of my official life, by commending the interests of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty God, and those who have the superintendence of them, to his holy keeping.

7. Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of action; and, bidding an affectionate farewell to this august body, under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my commission, and take my leave of all the employments of publick life.


Dec. 23, 1783.


WHEN the Scythian ambassadors waited on

Alexander the Great, they gazed on him a long time without speaking a word, being very probably surprised, as they formed a judgement of men from their air and stature, to find that his did not answer the high idea they entertained of him from his fame.

2. At last, the oldest of the ambassadors addressed him thus: "Had the gods given thee a body proportionable to thy ambition, the whole universe would have been too little for thee. With one hand thou wouldst touch the East, and with the other the West; and not satisfied with this,

thou wouldst follow the sun, and know where he hides himself.

3. But what have we to do with thee? We never set foot in thy country. May not those who inhabit woods be allowed to live, without knowing who thou art, and whence thou comest? We will neither command over, nor submit

to any man.

4. And that thou mayest be sensible what kind of people the Scythians are, know that we received from Heaven, as a rich present, a yoke of oxen, a ploughshare, a dart, a javelin, and a cup. These we make use of, both with our friends, and against our enemies.

5. To our friends we give corn, which we procure by the labour of our oxen; with them we offer wine to the gods in our cup; and with regard to our enemies, we combat them at a distance with our arrows, and near at hand with our javelins.

6. But thou, who boastest thy coming to extirpate robbers, art thyself the greatest robber upon earth. Thou hast plundered all nations thou overcamest; thou hast possessed thyself of Lybia, invaded Syria, Persia, and Bactriana; thou art forming a design to march as far as India, and now thou comest hither to seize upon our herds of cattle.

7. The great possessions thou hast, only make thee covet the more eagerly what thou hast not. If thou art a god, thou oughtest to do good to mortals, and not deprive them of their possessions.

8. If thou art a mere man, reflect always on what thou art. They whom thou shalt not molest will be thy true friends; the strongest friendships being contracted between equals; and they are esteemed equals who have not tried their strength against each other. But do not suppose that those whom thou conquerest can love thee.


DEMETRIUS Poliorcetes, who had done

singular services for the people of the city of Athens, on setting out for a war in which he was engaged, left his wife

and children to their protection. He lost the battle, and was obliged to seek security for his person in flight.

2. He doubted not, at first, but that he should find a safe asylum among his good friends the Athenians; but those ungrateful people refused to receive him, and even sent back to him his wife and children, under pretence, that they probably might not be safe in Athens, where the enemy might come and take them.

3. This conduct pierced the heart of Demetrius; for nothing is so affecting to an honest mind, as the ingratitude of those we love, and to whom we have done singular services. Some time afterwards, this prince recovered his affairs, and came with a large army to lay siege to Athens.

4. The Athenians, persuaded that they had no pardon to expect from Demetrius, determined to die sword in hand, and passed a decree, which condemned to death those who should first propose to surrender to that prince; but they did not recollect that there was but little corn in the city, and that they would in a short time be in want of bread.

5. Want soon made them sensible of their errour; and, after having suffered hunger for a long time, the most reasonable among them said, "It would be better that Demetrius should kill us at once, than for us to die by the lingering death of famine. Perhaps he will have pity on our wives and children." They then opened to him the gates of the city.

6. Demetrius, having taken possession of the city, ordered that all the married men should assemble in a spacious place appointed for the purpose, and that the soldiery, sword in hand, should surround them. Cries and lamentations were then heard from every quarter of the city; women embracing their husbands, children their parents, and all taking an eternal farewell of each other.

7. When the married men were all thus collected, Demetrius, for whom an elevated situation was provided, reproached them for their ingratitude in the most feeling manner, insomuch that he himself could not help shedding tears. Demetrius for some time remained silent, while the Athenians expected, that the next words he uttered would be to order his soldiers to massacre them all.

8. It is hardly possible to say what must have been their surprise when they heard that good prince say, "I wish to convince you how ungenerously you have treated me; for it was not to an enemy you have refused assistance, but to a prince who loved you, who still loves you, and who wishes to revenge himself only by granting your pardon, and by being still your friend. Return to your own homes: while you have been here, my soldiers have been filling your houses with provisions."


A NEW-ENGLAND sloop, trading on the

coast of Guinea, in 1752, left a second mate, William Murray, sick on shore, and sailed without him. Murray was at the house of a black man named Cudjoe, with whom he had contracted an acquaintance during their trade.

2. He recovered; and the sloop being gone, he continued with his black friend till some other opportunity should offer of his getting home. In the mean time a Dutch ship came into the road, and some of the blacks coming on board of her, were treacherously seized and carried off as their slaves.

3. The relations and friends, transported with sudden rage, ran to the house of Cudjoe, to take revenge by killing Murray. Cudjoe stopped them at the door, and demanded what they wanted. The white men, said they, have carried away our brothers and sons, and we will kill all white men. Give us the white man you have in your house, for we will kill him.

4. Nay, said Cudjoe, the white men who carried away your relations are bad men; kill them when you can take them; but this white man is a good man, and you must not kill him. But he is a white man, they cried; and the white men are all bad men; we must kill them all. Nay, says he, you must not kill a man who has done no harm, only for being white.

5. This man is my friend, my house is his post; I am his soldier, and must fight for him; you must kill me be

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