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and battered to pieces among the rocks and craggy cliffs, their weapons broken, and their horses weak and foundered.

4. Such are the cavalry, and such the infantry, with which you are going to contend; not enemies, but the fragments of enemies. There is nothing which I more apprehend, than that it will be thought Hannibal was vanquished by the Alps, before we had any conflict with him.

5. I need not be in any fear that you should suspect me of saying these things merely to encourage you, while inwardly I have different sentiments. Have I ever shown any inclination to avoid a contest with this tremendous Hannibal? and have I now met with him only by accident and unawares? or am I come on purpose to challenge him to the combat?

6. I would gladly try, whether the earth within these twenty years, has brought forth a new kind of Carthaginians; or whether they be the same sort of men who fought at the gates, and whom at Eryx you suffered to redeem themselves at eighteen denarii per head. Whether this Hannibal, for labours and journeys, be as he would be thought, the rival of Hercules; or whether he be what his father left him, a tributary, a vassal, a slave to the Roman people.

7. Did not the consciousness of his wicked deed at Saguntum torment him and make him desperate, he would have some regard, if not to his conquered country, yet surely to his own family, to his father's memory, to the treaty written with Amilcar's own hand. We might have starved them in Eryx; we might have passed into Africa with our victorious fleet, and in a few days have destroyed Carthage.

8. At their humble supplication, we pardoned them. We released them when they were closely shut up without a possibility of escaping. We made peace with them when they were conquered. When they were distressed by the African war, we considered them, and treated them as a people under our protection.

9. And what is the return they make us for all these favours? Under the conduct of a hair-brained young man, they come hither to overturn our state, and lay waste our country.

10. I could wish, indeed, that it were not so; and that the war we are now engaged in concerned our glory only, and not our preservation. But the contest at present is not for the possession of Sicily and Sardinia, but of Italy itself. Nor is there behind us another army, which, if we should not prove the conquerors, may make head against our victorious enemies.

11. There are no more Alps for them to pass, which might give us leisure to raise new forces. No, soldiers; here you must take your stand, as if you were just now before the walls of Rome. Let every one reflect, that he is now to defend, not his own person only, but his wife, his children, his helpless infants.

12. Yet let not private considerations alone possess our minds. Let us remember that the eyes of the senate and people of Rome are upon us; and that, as our force and courage shall now prove, such will be the fortune of that city, and of the Roman empire.


ON what side soever I turn my eyes, I behold

all full of courage and strength. A veteran infantry; a most gallant cavalry; you, my allies, most faithful and valiant; you, Carthaginians, whom not only your country's cause, but the justest anger, impels to battle. The hope, the courage of assailants, is always greater than that of those who act upon the defensive.

2. With hostile banners displayed, you are come down upon Italy. You bring the war. Grief, injuries, indignities, fire your minds, and spur you forward to revenge. First, they demand me; that I, your general, should be delivered up to them; next, all of you who had fought at the siege of Saguntin; and we were to be put to death by excruciating tortures.

3. Proud and cruel nation! Every thing must be yours, and at your disposal! You are to prescribe to us with whom

we are to make war, with whom to make peace! You are to set us bounds; to shut us up between hills and rivers; but you are not to observe the limits which yourselves have fixed!

4. "Pass not the Iberus." What next? "Touch not the Saguntines; Saguntum is upon the Iberus; move not a step towards that city." Is it a small matter, then, that you have deprived us of our ancient possessions, Sicily and Sardinia? You would have Spain too!

5. Well, we shall yield Spain, and then-you will pass into Africa. Will pass, did I say? This very year, they ordered one of their consuls into Africa, the other into Spain. No, soldiers, there is nothing left for us but what we can vindicate with our swords.

6. Come on, then. Be men. The Romans may, with more safety, be cowards. They have their own country behind them; have places of refuge to flee to; and are secure from danger in the roads thither. But for you, there is no middle fortune between death and victory. Let this be but well fixed in your minds, and, once again, I say you are





AVING spent above twenty years of my life with you, and passed through various scenes of peace and war within that time; being personally acquainted with many of you, both in your publick and private characters; and having an earnest desire to promote your true interest, I trust you will not think me altogether unqualified to give you a few hints by way of advice.

2. You are certainly a rising State; your numbers are rapidly increasing; and your importance in the political scale will be augmented, in proportion to your improving

the natural advantages which your situation affords you, and to your cultivating the intellectual and moral powers of yourselves and your children.

3. The first article on which I would open my mind to you is that of education. Nature has been as bountiful to you as to any other people, in giving your children genius and capacity! It is then your duty and your interest to cultivate their capacities, and render them serviceable to themselves and the community.

4. It was the saying of a great orator and statesman of antiquity, that "The loss which the Commonwealth sustains, by a want of education, is like the loss which the year would suffer by the destruction of the spring."

5. If the bud be blasted, the tree will yield no fruit. If the springing corn be cut down, there will be no harvest. So if the youth be ruined through a fault in their education, the community sustains a loss which cannot be repaired; "for it is too late to correct them when they are spoiled."

6. Notwithstanding the care of your legislatures in enacting laws, and enforcing them by severe penalties; notwithstanding the wise and liberal provision which is made by soine towns, and some private gentlemen in the state; yet there is still, in many places, "A great and criminal neglect of education."

7. You are indeed a very considerable degree better, in this respect, than in the time of the late war; but yet much remains to be done. Great care ought to be taken, not only to provide a support for instructers of children and youth, but to be attentive in the choice of instructers; to see that they be men of good understanding, learning and morals; that they teach by their examples, as well as by their precepts; that they govern themselves, and teach their pupils the art of self-government.

8. Another source of improvement, which I beg leave to recommend, is the establishment of social libraries. This is the easiest, the cheapest and most effectual mode of diffusing knowledge among the people. For the sum of six or eight dollars at once, and a small annual payment besides, a man may be supplied with the means of literary improvement during his life, and his children may inherit the blessing.

9. A few neighbours, joined together in setting up a library, and placing it under the care of some suitable person, with a very few regulations to prevent carelessness and waste, may render the most essential service to themselves and to the community.

10. Books may be much better preserved in this way, than if they belonged to individuals; and there is an advantage in the social intercourse of persons who have read the same books, by their conversing on the subjects which have occurred in their reading, and communicating their observations one to another.

11. From this mutual intercourse, another advantage may arise; for the persons who are thus associated may not only acquire, but originate knowledge. By studying nature and the sciences; by practising arts, agriculture and manufactures, at the same time that they improve their minds in reading, they may be led to discoveries and improvements, original and beneficial; and being already formed into society, they may diffuse their knowledge, ripen their plans, correct their mistakes, and promote the cause of science and humanity in a very considerable degree.

12. The book of nature is always open to our view, and we may study it at our leisure. "Tis elder Scripture, writ by God's own hand." The earth, the air, the sea, the rivers, the mountains, the rocks, the caverns, the animal and vegetable tribes, are fraught with instruction. Nature is not half explored; and in what is partly known there are many mysteries, which time, observation and experience must unfold.

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13. Every social library, among other books, should be furnished with those of natural philosophy, botany, zoology, chymistry, husbandry, geography and astronomy; that inquiring minds may be directed in their inquiries; that they may see what is known, and what still remains to be discovered; and that they may employ their leisure and their various opportunities in endeavouring to add to the stock of science, and thus enrich the world with their observations and improvements.›


14. Suffer me to add a few words on the use of spiritous liquor, that bane of society, that destroyer of health, morals and property. Nature indeed has furnished her

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