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theology, Erasmus Manteafle, who and accepted Paul Rhodes, a nawas newly raised to the see of tive of Quedlinburgh, who had been Cammin, opened a fierce persecu- exercising his ministry at Juttertion against the clergy, citizens, bock. The Senate presented him and students, who favoured the re- to the lectureship of the church of formed system, alleging that images St. James, which led to a quarrel had been removed in the night from with the monastery of Bamberg as the church of the Holy Spirit, and the ancient nominator. Rhodes, that the priests had been interrupt- however, persisted to preach at cered in the performance of the mass. tain hours, and administer the SaSome he cast into prison, others he crament in both kinds. The Duke forced to fly the country. The on his return beginning to show Abbot of Bulbech retreated to some displeasure, was persuaded Saxony, and became pastor of a by Prince Barnim to hear Rhodes church at Belzig, near Witten- himself, and declared that he could berg, whither Bugenhagen himself perceive nothing heretical in bis thought it prudent to retire, finding discourse. By the connivance of the mind of the prince in danger of the Sovereign, therefore, the rebeing alienated from him, from the formed doctrine continued to be misrepresentations of certain plau- preached in the capital, and in other sible Romanists. He had so ar- parts of Pomerania, till the death dent a desire to become personally of Bogislaus, who was succeeded acquainted with Luther, that he by his eldest son George, a prince readily yielded to the invitation of less liberal sentiments, when the contained in a letter from Peter persecution was revived by the dioSuaven, an erudite man and com- cesan of Cammin and his bigoted mon friend of the parties, who was coadjutors. persuaded of the great benefit which W hen Luther was called to atwould accrue to Bugenhagen from tend the Diet at Worms, the seran intimacy with the Professor. vices of Bugenhagen were very ac

About the same time, Duke Bo- ceptable at Wittenberg, where he gislaus and Bishop Erasmus, stay- expounded the Psalms to the great ing at Wittenberg, went to hear edification of a numerous auditory. Luther preach. The Prince was He was much esteemed by Meamused with the honesty and plain- lancthon for his prudence and ness of the preacher when he at learning, and his counsel was taken tacked the luxury and idleness of by most of the reforming divines on the prelates, and was observed to questions of criticism or casuistry. smile, and look at the Bishop, to In the absence of the Professor, see how he relished the address. Feldkirch, pastor of Kemberg, Bogislaus desired that Luther might thought proper to marry; which be introduced to him. He received measure led to much controversy him very graciously, and observed, among the Reformers, whether the that “ he should like his confession marriage of ministers was forbidden to be drawn up by him ;” on which by the Pope alone, and how far the Professor replied, that “ he monks should consider themselves feared the Duke of Pomerania, bound by the vow of celibacy. who had been a great Prince, had They sent to Luther, who promptly been also a great sinner.” This drew up his opinion, and transmitted freedom the Prince excused, ob- it to Wittenberg; where it arrived serving with some asseveration, that as Suaven and Bugenhagen were “ it was very true.” The citizens supping with Melancthon. Bugenof Stettin, during the absence of hagen read attentively the sentithe Duke and the Bishop, requestments of his friend against monastic ed Luther to send them a preacher, obligation, and sat some tinie paus. ing on the greatness of the question. The first invitation which he reHe was persuaded, that as soon as ceived of this kind, was from the this opinion was published many city of Hamburg. Having repairwould act upon it. « This affair," ed thither, he prescribed for the said he to his friends, “ will lead burghers a form of doctrine, discito most important changes in the pline, and ordination. He afterpublic state of things.” In fact, a wards performed the same service number of marriages soon followed, for Lubeck, and Brunswick, and and among others that of the Po- Pomerania ; in all which states he meranian himself.

was a principal instrument of estaCarlostadt maintaining, in the blishing schools in the suppressed height of his zeal, that the Mosaic monasteries. code should be introduced into He rendered Luther the most vacourts of judicature, and statues luable assistance in the translation removed from the churches, Bugen- of the Bible. This was a task in hagen was one of those who steadi- which he took the greatest delight, ly opposed the design, alleging that though the difficulties he had to the removal of the statues would encounter in some parts of his unlead to sedition, and that Hebrew dertaking were such as translators institutions were not applicable to of the present day, with their many Christian commonwealths. The helps, can but feebly imagine. steadiness and gravity which he When this amiable scholar, and displayed in this dispute, at the his pious colleagues, had arrived at risque of incurring censure from a the termination of their labours, party more fervid than prudent, for they felt that delightful sensation idolatrous and unscriptural feeling, which is reserved for those who contribute to elevate his character experience the sweets of repose, in the esteem of all lovers of good accompanied with a consciousness order; and on the return of Luther of useful and hallowed industry. from his confinement at the tower In the fulness of his heart he esta. of Wartenberg, Bugenhagen was blished an annual feast in honour chosen pastor of Wittenberg by the of the translation; and when such united suffrages of the academy men as composed that literary comand the senate, in the room of mission met togetherwith the Heinsius, who was taken from this Saxon Professor at their head, in important charge in 1522, by the the very spot where the work was stroke of death. From this station achieved, and each succeeding anhe determined never to remove, and niversary, for a length of time, here he laboured in the word and brought fresh accounts of new verdoctrine for thirty-six years, in sions from their translation, they many political changes, refusing to surely experienced far greater dequit his flock for reasons of war, light than any worldly enjoyments pestilence, or any other public cala- could afford. mity, though he was offered wealth Luther had a pleasing opportuand preferment both by the King of nity of evincing his gratitude to his Denmark and in his own country, friend in 1524, when Bugenhagen when in the course of events, Phi- published his admirable Commenlip, the son of George, succeeded tary on the Psalms. In a comto the government. But though he mendatory preface, he observed : considered Wittenberg as the fixed “I venture to affirm, that the Psalscene of his labours, few men of his ter of David has been explained by day were more actively engaged in no one, whose writings are extant,

settling the ecclesiastical concerns and that this Pomeranian clergy· of different principalities and com- man is the first in the world who monwealths.

deserves to be called an interpreter of the Psalms. Almost every other ference between ecclesiastical auman has brought his own opinion, thority and civil power. Bugenand that perhaps uncertain, into hagen made an oration on the last, the explication of this most beauti- for which he was eminently qualiful book; but here the sure judg- fied, giving great satisfaction to the ment of the Spirit will teach thee, whole court. yentle reader, wonderful things.” The twelfth of August, in the He shows his estimation of him year 1537, was a splendid æra in again, in a letter to Spalatinus, in the life of Bugenhagen. It was 1525. A Dantzic divine came to the birth-day of Christian III. King Wittenberg to request that Bugen- of Denmark, who was attached to hagen would consent to take on the cause of the Reformation, and himself the charge of their church, had been injuriously treated by the on which Luther wrote thus to his seven Bishops of the kingdom, who friend, the electoral Secretary : would have set up his infaut bro" There is one John, a pastor of ther John, educated in the old perthe Dantzickers, come to the Prince suasion; but that Prince, after to solicit his permission to call our much civil disturbance, had sucPomeranian to his city; I should ceeded in quashing the rebellion, be glad, therefore, if you could as- and had cast the Prelates into prisist him as far as in your power : son. In an assembly of the states for though I should like such a the Monarch, ascending a tempoman to stay here, yet in so import- rary throne, addressed the people ant a matter, I think one ought to for three hours, detailing the ingive him up. Who knows what trigues of the Papists, who would work God hath for him to do? We have prevented his accession, and must be careful not to hinder, murdered all who were in favour of through our mistakes, so excellent Lutheranism. The people demanda vocation of the Lord. You will ed the abolition of prelacy at the hear from this ecclesiastic, the close of the oration, which was dewonders that Christ is doing in that creed by the states, and Dr. Bucity. I confess, for myself, if I genhagen, who had been sent for had such a call, I dared not re- from Wittenberg for that purpose, fuse.” Bugenhagen, however, re- solemnly placed the crown on the mained firm to his resolution of King's head. On the twentieth of continuing at his post. Luther also the same month, the whole court prefixed an epistle to a Collection and council being assembled in the of the minor Writings of Athana- cathedral of Copenhagen, he consius, particularly those on the Tri- secrated seven superintendants, to nity; published by Bugenhagen in preside over the Danish church in 1532, as an antidote to Arian sen- the room of the ancient Bishops. timents.

. He appointed lectures to be read In 1533, when Jasper Cruciger in the academy, and gave regulaand John Epine were about to tions for the establishment of twenperform their exercises for the doc- ty-four thousand clergy in the joint torate at the university of Witten- realms of Denmark and Norway. berg, the Elector signified his wish In 1542 he went to Hildesheim, that our Reformer should be asso- at the instance of the senate, to arciated with them in the disputations range an ecclesiastical constitution; to be held on the occasion; adding, where, assisted by Martin Winkel that he would attend with the Elec- and Anthony Corvin, he ordained tress, and defray the whole of the six pastors over as many congregaexpense. The subjects discussed - tions, and shut up the church of the were justifying righteousness, the eanons. In an epistle written to nature of the church, and the dif- his friend Pontanus, he mentions his agreeable surprise at the pro- splendid embassy waited on him, gress made among the commonalty in the name of the two Dukes and by the reformed doctrine, notwith- of the whole Chapter of the prostanding the opposition of the pince, but he repeatedly refused monks. He preached his first ser- the offer. Meanwhile, the Elector mon there on the 1st of September, arrived, and urged on him the acand after the custom of the Re- ceptance of the dignity; and the formers, began a German hymn, ambassadors declared, that unless fearing he should have to sing a he consented, there would be a civil solo, as it was so different from the war between their Princes, who Latin chaunting which the congre- could agree on no other person. gation had been accustomed to hear, He was moved by their representawhen he found himself accompanied tions, and said he would accept it by the voices of nearly the whole on certain conditions ; but the emmultitude.

bassy had no sooner left him, than The Bishop of Cammin depart- he was greatly troubled, and praying on the 20th of June 1544, the ed : “ O God, how foolishly have cause of the Reformation in Pome- I consented ! Deliver me from this rania was delivered from a bitter bond for thy name sake, and for thy and persevering adversary. This Son Jesus Christ! I have fallen dignity was conferred from ancient into this error, on account of my time by the Dukes of the country, sins, through ignorance and preci and was of peculiar character in pitation; help me in thy mercy, as the Roman hierarchy. By the pa- thou hast said, O Israel, thou hast tent of creation, the Bishop was the destroyed thyself, but in me is thy first subject in the duchy, and su- help: even so, cast me not away preme counsellor, and was bound from thy presence!”. Then, taking to be faithful to the Dukes on pain courage, he wrote, that in the first of excommunication. The vacancy place he had considered the matin this office was required to be ter, and he did not think that the filled up within three months. Bar- threat of civil war ought to operate pim and Philip. could not agree in on him so far as to induce him to the nomination; the former inclin- undertake a charge for which he ing to young Lewis, son of the felt himself unequal, especially as Count of Eberstein, recommended many eligible persons might be by his brother-in-law, Ernest of found; and secondly, that as the Lunenberg; the latter insisting on Princes refused to sanction the conthe elevation of James Ciceritz, a ditions under which he had stipuPomeranian nobleman. This dis- lated his acceptance, he regarded pute being reported to the Elector himself as free from obligation. of Saxony and the Landgrave at He was now in his sixtieth year, Spires, they exhorted Barnim to and infirm. The bishoprichad desist from the nomination of a been conducted for sixteen years mere youth, and, in conjunction with in such hospitable style, that he Philip, elect some grave and apo- thought it would take him a whole stolic character, who would be su- year to be initiated in its culinary perior to the antiquated corruptions mysteries, and “ it was not just, to and superstitions. In consequence leave the word of God and serve of this advice, the Princes agreed tables.” The dignity, too, would with the States to appoint hence- engage him in so many state affairs, forth, a Bishop who would support that he should be drawn from study the confession of Augsburg; and and preaching, which would be both parties naturally turned their death to him. Christ also had said, eyes to their distinguished country- “ The kings of the earth exercise man, the pastor of Wittenberg. A lordship, but it shall not be so with

you." He had not property suffi- great Reformer by their personal cient to maintain the usual appear- repentance and faith. The veneance of such dignities, and of late, rable preacher was so often interbishoprics had been much impo- rupted by his own tears, and those verished, not merely through the of the congregation, that he shortspread of Lutheranism, but from a ened his discourse as much as deficiency of supply from the great. possible. Lastly, the enemies of the Gospel Soon after the discharge of this might take occasion to say, that affecting office he became so much the new doctors had deposed the debilitated both in mind and body, Papal prelates in order to occupy that Melancthon used to look on their seats themselves. He would, him with much compassion, secretly therefore, refuse the Pomeranian beseeching God to spare him the primacy, as he had already refused trial of similar decrepitude. When two dioceses elsewhere. They then not able to preach any longer, he asked him to hold it conditionally went daily to the church, where he for one year; but he replied, “ that spent much time in prayer, for himthe same contest between the self and the church of Christ. In Princes might be renewed, while his last sickness, his devotional spihe might occasion more scandal by rit and conversation were very edia resignation : that he had some fying; and he found much comfort years before laboured to effect more in repeating that passage of John, reformation in the prelacy of his “ This is lite eternal, to know thee, country, and it was not his fault the only true God, and Jesus Christ that he had not succeeded. He whom thou hast sent.” He calmly would now, however, go once more expired on the 20th of April 1558, thither, if practicable, to make an wanting two months of the complealteration in church matters, before tion of his seventy-third year. . the election of another Bishop. He used to illustrate justificaLet them choose some good man tion by this beautiful comparison : who would preach as well as pre- “ As a ring, set with a precious side. The chief Shepherd used to stone, is valued, not for the quanpreach, and the disciple is not tity of gold which encloses the above his master. If the two Dukes jewel, but for the jewel itself; so cannot agree, let each nominate his sinners are justified by faith in and own friend, and cast lots as in the through the Son of God, whom case of Matthias.” The difficulty ter- faith receives and apprehends, as minated by the election of Bartho- the ring doth the stone." lomew Suaven, the ducal chancellor. We cannot conclude his memo

The last public act in which this rial better, than by quoting the excellent pastor was engaged, was motto which he adopted, and wrote the funeral sermon for his revered under his own portrait, when shown Luther, on the 22d of Feb. 1546, it by that Christian artist, Luke before a crowded auditory, in the Cranach, so well known in the great church of Wittenberg. His history of the Reformation : “ Now text was 1 Thess. iv. 13, 14. He thanks be to God, which always drew a fine comparison between causeth us to triumph in Christ, and the deceased and the angel in the maketh manifest the savour of his Apocalypse, who said, “ Fear the knowledge by us in every place. Lord, and give honour to him," as For we are unto God a sweet sathe Professor had taught his fear your of Christ, in them that are by the Law, and his honour by the saved, and in them that perish: to Gospel. He then spoke of his the one we are the savour of death character, and desire of happy de- unto death; and to the other the parture, and concluded by exhort- savour of life unto life: and, who is ing them to fulfil the wishes of the sufficient for these things ?»

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