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groes of the last-mentioned estate, in every respect whatever, it appeared that, in the year 1821, but one out of 130 females, had deserved to be reported as of " indifferent conduct;" and she only, in the course of that year, was punished. The very respectable attorney of this property, when transmitting the answers referred to, in relating
this fact, and reporting the decided improvement in the moral state of the negroes, ex
by the Established Church, or by means of the Wesleyan and Moravian Societies. It appears. that already, nearly 80,000 negroes, in different parts of the islands, are under instruction by the Wesleyan Missionaries; that the prejudices formerly existing against them in the colonies, are rapidly vanishing; and that there exists no impediment, except the want of funds, to prevent that Society extending its efforts to every part of the islands; while it is obviously the interest of proprietors of estates to supply those funds which are necessary for the purpose, and which would soon be abundantly returned in the improved value of their property, of the negro population of each will alone and the permanent security which explain to no small extent. This was adreligion would afford. The follow-mitted by a most respectable and competent ing statements of Sir George are full to the point:
It is, I believe, scarcely four years since, that, unable to obtain religious instruction for our negroes, either through the Church of England, or through the Moravian Brethren, we had recourse to the Committee of the Wesleyan Missions, as our only and last resource. We may confess that we did so reluctantly, for we knew the prepossessions prevailing in the island against that sect to be such as would materially impede and might possibly frustrate our attempt. Our recollection of the nature and force of that repugnance to their Missionaries, which might then, perhaps, with the exception of the Governor of the colony, be called general, is still fresh; and yet, in this short space of time, the fruits of their labours have been such (and this is the only rational test of them), that at present more than half the estates on the island in question, are open to them; and the only allegation against them, which I have seen of late from that quarter, is that of their strenuously holding certain tenets, to which it is notorious they happen to be as strenuously opposed. In another island, when I had lately to inform myself of the circumstances of two estates, for the conducting of which I feel myself in a considerable degree responsible, I found, that on the largest and best of them, the slave population, although baptized, was utterly without religion, ignorant, disorderly, and dishonest-whilst, on the other, which is in the immediate neighbourhood of an establishment of Wesleyan Missionaries, the slaves were nearly all mora! Christians. From answers to a very detailed inquiry into the condition of the ne
presses his persuasion, that in consequence, punishments, already progressively diminishing, will at no distant period be entirely abolished: and these most satisfactory reowing almost exclusively, if not entirely, to the zealous and pious labours of the Wesleyan Missionaries. The contrast in the state of the temporal interests of these two properties, was, and still is, wholly to the advantage of the lesser of the two; which
sults, he observes, are to be considered as
the difference of the moral circumstances
judge, who assuredly had no leaning towards the Wesleyans, and who gave the most irrecusable and practical proof of the conviction produced on his mind by this latter circumstance.-Pp. 8, 9.
Sir G. Rose shows, what indeed a very slight consideration of the subject necessarily demonstrates, that the Established Clergy in the Islands cannot possibly undertake, even if so disposed and in other respects qualified, the religious instruction of the negroes.
The very habits of life, and the education of the missionary of the sects, give him a marked advantage over our ecclesiastics in matters of conversion, where those who are to be the subjects of it, are of the description of the heathen negroes. He is used to deal with ignorant men, of coarse habits, and whose minds comprehend slowly: he knows how to set about making himself understood by them, and how to understand them; how to unravel their halfintelligible jargon; and to descry and aid the first glimmerings of their reason and conviction. None of these things can be expected from the graduated member of an English University. Our prospect, however, of being able to derive religious instruction by means of our church begins to brighten. The Church Missionary Society is making arrangements to send out missionaries to the West Indies; and a hope exists, that a very material augmentation of the means of diffusing the Gospel by the church may shortly be effected by the appointment of a bishop or bishops for the West Indies; for it is wholly impossible,
under the very peculiar circumstances of our ecclesiastical establishment in those settlements, that difficulties can be overcome, evils corrected, or prevented, and, in general, that means can be adapted to their ends, otherwise than by a resident head, in whom, for various reasons, the patronage of it should reside. The present excellent pre
late, to whom our Colonial Church in that quarter is subordinate, has in its manage ment, a task imposed upon him above the powers of man. The prudent and enlightened measures which he has recurred to in the exercise of his functions relative to it, testify that if it must remain under his charge, no practical effort will be wanting on his part, to add as much as possible to its efficiency. I understand that upon wise and liberal motives there have been recently ordained, to act as curates in Jamaica, with a peculiar view to the religious instruction of the slaves, persons who possess a less degree of learning, than would be called for in Ministers of European congregations. It appears also to be in contemplation, to give to the West Indian Church new and extended means of preaching the Gospel to the slaves. His Majesty's government, which, I am persuaded, is seriously occupied in devising the best means of carrying these wise and benevolent intentions into effect, will do itself a credit, and render a service to the nation, by the accomplishment of them, not easily to be estimated. If, as is rumoured, a new clergy is to be sent out, composed of persons less highly educated than our European clergy, and directed to labour exclusively in promoting the conversion of the slaves, and in giving them religious instruction; if it is aided by such lay auxiliaries as it may find, or form on the spot; and if the whole of this machinery is placed immediately under the Bishop, and is independent of the parochial clergy, I should entertain a sanguine hope of the success of such an establishment. The parochial clergy would continue to exercise its present functions, and such slaves as may choose to frequent their churches might continue to do so. In time, the two establishments might be usefully blended; but any immediate attempt to incorporate them would, I am convinced, from various causes, defeat the plan in the outset. I conceive
that this new institution should be conse
crated exclusively to the conversion of the slaves, who would receive from the clerical members of it the benefits of the various rites of our church, as the calls for them
should arise. New diseases require new remedies. We have often four military establishments in activity on the same spot, the regular army, the militia, the local militia, and the yeomanry, without confusion or inconvenience; we may assuredly venture
upon a less complicated experiment in the matter in question.-Pp. 15-17.
In addition to the spiritual benefits resulting to the negroes themselves, from religious instruction, the present temporal benefits to the proprietors of estates are, as we have already intimated, clearly pointed out. The following extracts from the Appendix to this pamphlet, place the subject in a very clear point of view.
Several planters have said to me, that they viewed our marrying the slaves as one of the best measures that the missionaries ever introduced into the island. This opinion is gaining strength daily. Sometimes I have inquired for the ground of this opinion, and have generally received answers to this effect. 1. "It has very much diminished our trouble on the estates; for, before marriage was so generally introduced amongst them, we had endless disputes and fightings, but now we have scarcely any thing of this." 2. "Formerly we might send down time after time to the negro houses in the evening if we wanted any of them for any thing particular, and never find them at home, but now you may send down to the houses of the married people, and be almost sure of finding them." 3." It has given them many domestic habits, which are likely to be of considerable advantage to the estates; for instance, many of them are now building larger houses, or improving their old ones, that they may live more constantly and comfortably together." 4. "It promotes their health and usefulness. Formely they were running in different directions after they had done their work at night, and often came home in the morning before sun-rise, after walking many miles in the night and morning dew, sick, or so jaded, that they could not attend to their work; but this is not the case with the married people on the estate." 5. "It is the best way of enhancing the property by increasing the number of the slaves upon it."-Pp. 70, 71.
Happy will it be for our West India Islands if their wealthy proprietors shall be actuated by the spirit of the writer of this pamphlet, and happy will it be if our legislature proceed with vigour in the adoption of those plans of religious instruction and ecclesiastical superintendence, which, it is said, His Majesty's government have already under serious contemplation.
Memoirs of Timothy Dwight, LL.D. President of Yale College, Connecticut, America.Glasgow. 18mo. 1822. THE lives of eminently pious and distinguished persons are highly beneficial in exciting and directing others to copy their example; and they are especially calculated for usefulness, when, as in the present instance, they appear in a cheap and portable form. In many cases, indeed, the events of a long life may be summed up in a short compass; and much that is highly interesting to the personal friends. of the deceased may be omitted with considerable advantage to the public. This seems to have been well understood by the author of these Memoirs, and we doubt not that his small publication will in consequence be far more extensively circulated and more abundantly
Dr. Dwight was born in 1752, and owed, like many other distinguished characters, the most valuable part of his education to the early instructions of a pious and excellent mother, the third daughter of that able and distinguished theologian, Jonathan Edwards.
She possessed (says our author) uncommon powers of mind, and for the extent and variety of her knowledge has rarely been exceeded by any of her sex in this country. Though married at an early age, and a mother at eighteen, she found time, without neglecting the ordinary cares of her family, to devote herself with the most assiduous attention to the instruction of this son, and her numerous family of children, as they successively claimed her regard. Perhaps few instances can be found in which this great duty has been performed with more scrupulous fidelity, than in the case now under consideration. With a mind originally vigorous and discriminating, she had been accustomed from infancy to the conversation of men of literature, who resorted in great numbers to her father's house; and thus was forcibly taught the importance of that learning, the effects of which she had so often had an opportunity to witness. It was a maxim with her, the soundness of which her own observation through
life fully confirmed, that children generally lose several years, in consequence of being
considered by their friends as too young to be taught. She pursued a different course with her son. She began to instruct him almost as soon as he was able to speak; and such was his eagerness as well as his capacity for improvement, that he learned
the alphabet at a single lesson; and before he was four years old was able to read the ther was so extensively engaged in mercantile and agricultural pursuits, that he was
Bible with ease and correctness. His fa
necessitated to confide the care of his fa
mily, and particularly the superintendence of the early education of his children, chiefly to their mother. With the benefit of his fa
ther's example constantly before him, en
forced and recommended by the precepts of his mother, he was sedulously instructed in the doctrines of religion, as well as the whole circle of moral duties. She taught him from the very dawn of his reason to fear God and to keep his commandments; to be conscientiously just, kind, affectionate, charitable, and forgiving; to preserve on all occasions, and under all circumstances,.
the most sacred regard to truth; and to re
lieve the distresses and supply the wants of the poor and unfortunate. She aimed, at
a very early period, to enlighten his con
science, to make him afraid to sin, and to teach him to hope for pardon only through the righteousness of Christ. The impressions thus made upon his mind in infancy
were never effaced.
A great proportion of the instruction which he received before he arrived at the age of six years, was at home with his mother. Her school-room was the nursery. Here he had his regular hours for study, as in a school; and twice every day she heard him repeat his lesson. Here, in addition to his stated task, he watched the cradle of his younger brothers. When his lesson was recited, he was permitted to read such books as he chose, until the limited period was expired. During these
intervals he often read over the historical parts of the Bible, and gave an account of them to his mother. So deep and distinct was the impression which these narrations then made upon his mind, that their minutest incidents were indelibly fixed upon his memory. His relish for reading was thus early formed, and was strengthened by the conversation and example of his parents.-Pp. 14-17.
From this time till the year 1771, we find him, with little interruption, diligently pursuing his academical career. At that period, when only nineteen, he was chosen a tutor in Yale College, where he remained for six years performing its duties with distinguished repu
tation. In the second year of his tutorship, however, he nearly ruined his constitution,
By restricting his diet, in order to remove the necessity for bodily exercise, and yet to secure himself from the dulness incident to a full habit and inactive life. He
began by lessening the quantity of his food at dinner; and gradually reduced it, until he confined himself to twelve mouthfuls. After a six months' experiment of this regimen, being still somewhat dissatisfied with its effects, and feeling less clearness of apprehension than was desirable, he confined himself for a considerable period to a
vegetable diet, without, however, increasing the quantity. His other meals were proportionally light and abstemious.
The effect was as might have been anticipated.
After this system of study and diet had been pursued about a twelvemonth, his health began gradually to decline, and his constitution, naturally 'vigorous, to give way. During the summer of 1774, he first perceived the reality of this change;
but had no suspicion of the cause. Though
he had suffered several distressing attacks
of the bilious colic before the College
commencement, yet after the vacation he renewed the same course of regimen and of application to study. But a short time had elapsed before these attacks were repeated with increased violence; and his friends becoming seriously apprehensive of the consequences, informed his connexions of his situation. His father, on his arrival at New Haven, found that his disorder had indeed made dreadful ravages in his consti
tution. His frame was emaciated; and his
strength so far reduced, that it was with extreme difficulty he could be conveyed to Northampton. When he left New Haven, his friends and his pupils took leave of him as they supposed for the last time; and he had himself relinquished all hope of reco
very. In the course of two months he had nineteen severe attacks of the disease. An eminent physician, whom he now consulted, after successfully administering to his immediate relief, recommended him, among other things, a daily course of vigorous bodily exercise, as the only means of restoring his constitution to its primitive vigour. He followed his advice; and within a twelvemonth, walked upwards of two thousand miles, and rode on horseback upwards of three thousand. To his perseverance in this system he was probably indebted for his recovery, as well as for the uninterrupted health and vigour of constitution, which he enjoyed for the ensuing forty years.
We insert this extract, because
it is of great importance that students should be generally aware that without steady and regular exercise their capabilities and usefulness will be destroyed, and that, while temperance is of the utmost importance, abstemiousness may be carried to such an extent as to defeat the object which they, in common with Mr. Dwight, have in view.
When the American war broke out, Mr. Dwight joined the army, as chaplain, in the year 1777. From this perilous situation he was recalled by the death of his father; and was, in consequence of family circumstances, employed during the following five years in the education of his brother and sisters, and the management of the family estate; labouring through the week upon the farm, and preaching on the Sunday to different vacant congregations in the neighbourhood. Some efforts were at this time made to induce him to engage in civil life; but, in 1783, he accepted of an invitation to settle at Greenfield, where he was ordained as pastor, and commenced an academy, in which, during twelve years, he is said to have instructed above a thousand pupils, many of whom have been since highly distinguished.
In May 1795, he was called to fill the important station of President of Yale College. On entering on his office, he found the discipline very relaxed, and infidel principles generally prevalent.
To extirpate a spirit so pernicious and fatal, he availed himself of an early and decisive opportunity. Forensic disputation was an important exercise of the senior class. For this purpose they were formed into a convenient number of divisions; two of which disputed before him every week, in the presence of the other members of the class, and of the resident graduates. It was the practice for each division to agree upon several questions, and then refer them to the President to select which he thought proper. Until this time, the students had not been allowed to discuss any question which involved the inspiration of the Scriptures; from an apprehension, that the
examination of these points would expose them to the contagion of scepticism. As infidelity was extensively prevalent in the State and in the country, the effect of this course on the minds of the students had been unhappy. It had led them to believe, that their instructors were afraid to meet, the question fairly; and that Christianity was supported by authority and not by ar
gument. One of the questions presented
by the first division was this: "Are the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament the Word of God?" To their surprise, the President selected it for discussion; told them to write on which side they pleased, as he should not impute to them any sentiments which they advanced as their own; and requested those who should write on the negative side of the question, to collect and bring forward all the facts and arguments which they could produce; enjoining it upon them, however, to treat the subject with becoming respect and reverence. Most, if not all, of the members of the division, came forward as the champions of infidelity. When they had finished the discussion, he first examined the ground they had taken; triumphantly refuted their arguments; proved to them that their statement of facts was mistaken, or irrelevant; and, to their astonishment, convinced them that their acquaintance with the subject was wholly superficial. After this he entered into a direct defence of the divine origin of Christianity, in a strain of powerful argument and animated eloquence, which nothing could resist. The effect upon the students was electrical. From that moment Infidelity was not only without a stronghold, but without a lurking-place. To espouse her cause was now as unpopular, as before it had been to profess a belief in Christianity: unable to endure the exposure of argument, she fled from the retreats of learning ashamed and disgraced.
It may indeed be doubted whether the same effect might not have been produced in a safer way. Public disputations on controverted subjects are not, perhaps, the best mode of arriving at a right decision; and the strength of passion, and the imperfection of judgment, natural to the time of life when persons usually attend a college course, are dangerous impediments. Under, however, the superintendence of so able and vigorous a mind as Dr. Dwight's, an experiment might be safely tried, which would be highly inexpedient under a less powerful influence.
The exertions of Dr. Dwight soon introduced order and discipline, and raised Yale College to a high degree of reputation. Here this pious and able divine continued teaching, writing, and preaching, for two-and-twenty years. His labours were crowned with great success. Vast numbers of young men were prepared, under his superintendence, for civil and ministerial services; and, amidst his incessant round of collegiate and ministerial duties, many valuable publications proceeded from his pen, which have not only been extensively useful in the United States, but have been also republished in this country.
After a life thus employed in his Master's service, Dr. Dwight was removed from this present world in January 1817, aged 65. Many interesting circumstances relative to his character, his last illness, his various publications, &c. are contained in the volume before us, which will repay a careful and serious perusal; but we have only room for the following short extract.
"During the long continuance of my disease," says he, (referring to a dangerous illness in 1815), "I had ample opportunity to survey this most interesting of all subjects [the mercy of God, as exercised towards our lost race, through the all-sufficient and glorious righteousness of the Redeemer] on every side.
As the result of all my investigations, let me assure you, and that from the neighbourhood of the eternal world, confidence in the righteousness of Christ is the only foundation furnished by earth, or hea
ven, upon which, when you are about to leave this world, you can safely, or willingly, rest the everlasting life of your souls, To trust upon any thing else, will be to feed upon the wind, and sup up the east wind.' You will then be at the door of eternity; will be hastening to the presence of your Judge; will be just ready to give up your
account of the deeds done in the body;' will be preparing to hear the final sentence of acquittal or condemnation; and will stand amazing circumstances you will infinitely need; let me persuade you to believe, and to feel, that you will infinitely need, a firm foundation on which you may stand, and from which you will never be removed,
at the gate of heaven or of hell. In these
There is no other such foundation, but 'the Rock of Ages.'"