The Forgotten Front: Patron-Client Relationships in Counterinsurgency
After a decade and a half of war in Iraq and Afghanistan, US policymakers are seeking to provide aid and advice to local governments' counterinsurgency campaigns rather than directly intervening with US forces. This strategy, and US counterinsurgency doctrine in general, fail to recognize that despite a shared aim of defeating an insurgency, the US and its local partner frequently have differing priorities with respect to the conduct of counterinsurgency operations. Without some degree of reform or policy change on the part of the insurgency-plagued government, American support will have a limited impact. Using three detailed case studies - the Hukbalahap Rebellion in the Philippines, Vietnam during the rule of Ngo Dinh Diem, and the Salvadorian Civil War - Ladwig demonstrates that providing significant amounts of aid will not generate sufficient leverage to affect a client's behaviour and policies. Instead, he argues that influence flows from pressure and tight conditions on aid rather than from boundless generosity.
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action administration administration’s advisors agency agency theory Ambassador American aid April army ARVN August behavior civilian client government command commitment Communist compliance conditionality conditions on aid Conflict counterinsurgency country’s Cowen DDRS death squads December Defense Diem Diem’s Duarte Durbrow economic Edward Lansdale effort El Salvador election ESAF February FMLN Foreign FRUS government’s guerrillas Hukbalahap Huks human rights Ibid inducement insurgents intelligence International January Junta JUSMAG Kennedy Lansdale leaders leverage MAAG Magsaysay Magsaysay’s Manila March Melby Melby Papers Memo Memorandum ment military aid military assistance NAUK Ngo Dinh Diem Nolting November October October 18 officers patron Patron-Client percent Philippine government political population President pressure Quirino Papers Reagan reform regime Report Saigon Salvadoran government Salvadoran military San Salvador Secretary security forces selectorate theory September South Vietnamese government Telegram threat U.S. military United University Press Vietcong Vietnam violence Washington York