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spirits like frogs. One of them shall proceed from the Dragon, that is the Devil. That fiend, seeing his kingdom in this world near its overthrow, shall exert himself to the utmost, to blind many with error, superstition, and false zeal, so as to make them fight for Rome to the last. Another of them shall come out of the mouth of the beast; every part of the hierarchy shall exert itself in collecting forces to this war. And the third shall come out of the mouth of the false prophet. The false prophet signifies the Pope individually. This is the first time, that he is called the false prophet, because the issue of this battle shall fully prove that he was a false prophet when he represented the church of Rome as the true church of God, and himself and that church as infallible. In chap. xix. 20. he is again called the false prophet, and he is described in the same manner as he is defcribed in chap. xiii. 11.-15, as working miracles before the beast, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image ; to shew us that he is the same person under a different name The Pope too shall exert himself individually to the utmost of his power, in collecting forces from every quarter. These emiffaries are unclean spirits like frogs. However, zealous for religion, they are, like unclean beasts, "unfit for the pure worship of the altar of God. As frogs are amphibious animals,


they shall put on an amphibious character, and address either the temporal or fpiritual interests of those whom they follicit to the war, which ever of them they shall judge to be most effectual. To men who have no regard to religion, they will few as little; but will represent to them how deeply their temporal interests are engaged in this war. To men blinded by superstition, they will pretend that they despise their temporal concerns; but they call upon them to fight for their religion, and their church. To work the more powerfully upon such persons, they will perform false mira. cles before them. The battle, to which they shall be gathered is called the battle of that great day of God Almighty. It shall be that great battle, which he hath predicted ; in which he shall totally overthrow Papal Rome, and fully prove, to the world, his own omnipotence, by the full establishment of his church, and overthrow of all her enemies.

“ Behold I come as a thief.” In these words, it is intimated that however clearly this battle of the great day of the Lord hath been foretold, that, when it actually happens, it shall come upon the greatest part of men, especially upon the votaries of Rome, suddenly and unexpectedly. Not cre. diting these predictions, or not applying them to themselves, they shall be surprized and taken at unawares, by the event itself. VOL. II.

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" And he gathered them together, unto a place, so called in the Hebrew tongue, Armageddon." The he here evidently refers to the sixth angel, in the beginning of verse 12th. That is, by the inftrumentality of the devil, of the Roman hierarchy, of the Pope, of some of the European kingdoms, and of the Turks, this dispensation of divine providence shall, without knowing that they are fulfilling the prophecies of God, col. lect, all these forces to a particular place, as the principal field of action; which according to the import of the Hebrew word, may juftly be called Armageddon. This word, in the Hebrew language, signifies the turrets which are devot. ed to destruction. Most probably it fignifies the many lofty turrets of Rome, which had long ago been devoted to destruction by the predictions of God; and which shall be destroyed by the army, which at this time shall forever bury the name of Rome under the rubbish of its fallen towers, to which the name of Armageddon shall fitly apply. That Armageddon fignifies the city of Rome, for the reason just now given, is still farther evident from what is said as to the field of action in this war, in chap. xiv. 20.

The precise time of the commencement of this · war, or rather of this great and decisive battle,

predicted in this sixth vial, I do not pretend to fix exactly; first, because it is not fixed in the predic



tion itself; and next, because it cannot be fixed from history, the time of its commencement not being yet come. But it is probable, that it will be sometime in the year 1998, because it must immediately precede the seventh vial, which closes that war, and announces the total overthrow of Rome as the close of it. It was formerly shewn that Rome shall be finally overthrown in the end of the year 1999; and we may reasonably suppose that a little more than one year will be sufficient, and not more than sufficient time for collecting the forces, and fighting the battle predicted in the sixth vial; which would run it back to sometime in the year 1998. Its commencement may be either a little earlier or later ; but its termina'. tion will be near the end of the year 1999. .

Verses 17th,-21th.—And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air ; and there came a great voice out of the temple in heaven, from the throne, saying, it is done. And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings ; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, fo mighty an earthquake and so great. And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance.

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before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blafphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

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The seventh angel poured out his vial into the air. The air is the region and medium of lightening, thunder, hail, and storms. These are produced by the changes which take place in the state of the air. As these are the judgements which are predicted in this vial, it is therefore said to be poured into the air. Changes in the civil, political, and religious state of the world, are expressed in the symbolical language, by correipondent changes in the state of the natural world. Hence, as this vial predicts the total overthrow of Papal Rome, and a great change, for the better, of the general state of the civil, political, and religious condition of the world, the vial is said to be poured into the air, to fignify 'that the very atmosphere of civil and religious government; under which men shall live, after the time of this vial, fhall be purified and refined, having discharg


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