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with the temporal dominion of Rome, which he and his successors have kept ever since, Sigon. de Regno Ijaliæ, p. 75,-80..

" And the beast that was and is not, even he is 66. the eighth, and is of the seven.” The beast in the vision was to succeed the Exarch of Ravenna, and on that account, may be called the eighth form of government in Rome, when the Exarch is counted as one of them. But, according to the symbol of the seven heads, as explained by the angel to fig. nify seven mountains and seven kings in union, the Exarch is not to be counted ; because the feat of his government was Ravenna ; and not Rome, the city built upon seven mountains. None are to be counted among the kings, signified by the feven heads, except those who had for the seat of their government the city on the seven hills; and hence, when you take into the count the Exarch, that one of a different kind from the rest, the beast in the vision will be the eighth; but when you count only those who have all agreed in this leading feature, that they had their seat of govern. ment in the city of Rome, then the beast is one of the seven. As fix of the seven were past before the Exarch, and as the beast in the vision hath arisen immediately after the Exarch, he must be the seventh. Is not the Papal the only form of government which hath had the city of Rome for its feat since the diffolution of the empire' under

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. Momillus ?

Momillus? Was not the imperial, which ended in Momillus, the fixth form of government which had its seat in the city of Rome? After the diffo. lution of the empire, and the unsettled state of I. · taly under the northern barbarians, none of whom had Rome for the seat of their government, did not the Exarch of Ravenna govern it for a short time as a small dukedom under him, while he had his seat of government in Ravenna ? And did not Pepin king of France raise Pope Stephen II. to the temporal dominion of Rome, with the city of Rome for his seat of government, A. D. 756? Is not therefore the Papal government of Rome the beast with the seven heads ? Hath that government, with that seat of it, continued for 1034 years? Is not this a strong presumption that it shall continue for the remaining 200 years of the 1243, for which this book says he should continue.

.“ And goeth into perdition.” He is the last head of Roman government, for the beast had only seven heads: When the seventh head, therefore, receives a deadly wound, the beast itself must die. The Papal and the Roman government shall both end together in the year 1999.

This key, “ he is the eighth and is of the seven," fo exactly fits all the uncommon wards of that lock which is to be opened by it, that when deliberately examined, it appears to exceed all created skill. Had John said the beast was the seventh, the vo

taries of Rome would have said, It is not the Papal government which is intended, because the Exarch was the seventh, and therefore the Papal is the eighth: or had he said he is the eighth, they would have said the Exarch was but a depute himself, under the Grecian emperors, and therefore could not be counted a form of government, so that the Papal is the seventh, and therefore, cannot be the beast to whom John refers. But, lays John, in this key, to prevent all such quibbling, count the Exarchate a form of Roman government or not, as you please, and you shall find that this key opens the beast with the seven heads, so as to discover the Papal form of Roman government, and noother one. For, if you count the Exarch one, then remember I have said the beast is the eighth; but if you do not count the Exarch one of the seven, but one of a different kind, as I do, then remem. ber that I have told you that the beast is of the se. ven. Count therefore, as you please, you shall not derange this mark of the beast which I have fixed upon the Papal government.

Verse 12ih.-And the ten horns which thou fawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet, but receive power as į kings, one hour with the beast.


The ten horns are ten kings, that is, ten distinct independent rulers of kingdoms. None of them had received his kingdom in the days of John, but they were all to rise into existence as independent kingdoms, at the same time with Papal Rome.

“One hour with the beast.” Some commen. tators think that this phrase should have been translated at the same hour, or same time, with the beast. To this interpretation I could have had 'no objection, if praer azar had been in the ablative and not in the accusative case. But, whether we translate it at the same time, or for one hour, that is, for a short time with the beast, it will equally correspond to the fact. For ten kingdoms rose out of the western Roman empire, a very short time before the Papal became a temporal kingdom; and the complete number ten continued only for a very short time after the Papal government a. rose. The greatest part of one of thein was destroy. ed in the very erection of the Papal kingdom: A great part of the kingdom of Ravenna was contained in the grant which Pepin made to Pope Stephen II. by which he and his successors became temporal princes. Other two of these kingdoms, which' had their seats also in Italy, were foon swallowed up by the Papal kingdom, so that the ten kingdons continued entire with the beast on. ly for a very short time.



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The prophet Daniel gives a very minute accoụnt of these ten horns. With John he tells us, that they are ten kings who were afterwards to arise; but he tells us farther, that the Papal power was very soon to pluck up just three of them, and consequently, that all the ten were to exist only a short time with him Dan: vii. 8.1“ I confidered

the horns, and behold there came up among $them another, little horn, before whom there " were three of the first horns plucked up by the " roots; and behold, in this horn, were eyes; like

the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great " things,” , Verse 24th.“ Aud the ten horós out " of, this kingdom are ten kjogs that faalt arise : 56 and ancther shall rise after them, and he th:11 " be diverse from the first, and he shall suhdue " three kings": And th:ą.in, verla 25th, he: det scribes the Papal government most exaâly..?

Let us now see if it appears from history, that ten kings rose out of the Western empire, at the time the Pope became a temporal prince, and if he foon swallowed up three of these.

The ten, following kingdoms rose out of the Wettern empire, just before the Pope became a temporal prince; the Franks and Burgundians in Gaul; the Goths and Viligoths in Spain; the En, glish and Scottish in Britain'; the Lo:ndards, the Normans, and the kingdom of Ravenna in Italy; and the Saracens in Africa. For these, consult


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