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Sunt de sanctis inaudita,
Quemquam passum talia ;
In terris exterritas.
3.-CHARACTER OF SIMON DE MONTFORT.
• Erat signidem, &c.' Rish. de Bellis, &c., 6. 7. He was indeed a mighty man, and prudent, and circumspect ; in the use of arms and in experience of warfare, superior to all others of his time ; commendably endowed with knowledge of letters; fond of hearing the offices of the church by day and night ; sparing of food and drink, as those who were about him saw with their own eyes; in time of night watching more than he slept, as his more intimate friends have oft related. In the greatest difficulties which he went through while handling affairs of state, he was found trustworthy, notably in Gascony, whither he went by command of the king, and there subdued to the Kings Majesty rebels beforetime unconquered, and sent them to England to his lord the King. He was moreover pleasant and witty in speech, and ever aimed at the reward of an admirable faith ; on account of which he did not fear to undergo death, as shall be told hereafter. His constancy all men, even his enemies, admired; for when others had sworn to observe the Provisions of Oxford, and the most part of them despised and rejected that to which they had sworn, he having once taken the oath, like an immoveable pillar, stood firm, and neither by threats, nor promises, nor gifts, nor flattery could he be moved to depart in any way with the other magnates from the oath which he had taken to reform the state of the realm. He commended himself to the prayers of the religious, and humbly, as with brotherly affection, he begged to be allied with them, in the pouring out of prayers to God for the state of the realm and the peace of the church; and he was constant in supplication that divine grace might keep him spotless from avarice and covetousness of earthly things, knowing for a surety that many in those days were encumbered by such vices, as the issue of things afterwards made clear. To the religious and other prelates of the church, commended by honesty of life, he showed all due reverence ; deserving to be called the perfect disciple of a perfect master ; having been instructed in all good discip. line, inasmuch as he clung with hearty affection to the blessed Robert, once Bishop of Lincoln, and gave his children to be brought up by him, and did many things by his wholesome advice. And the said bishop is related to have enjoined upon the Earl, for the remission of his sins, that he should take upon himself that cause for which he fought even unto death ; declaring that the peace of the English church could never be secured without the temporal sword, and constantly affirming that all who died in her and for her should receive the crown of martyrdom. It is related by trustworthy persons, that the bishop once placed his hands on the head of the Earls firstborn son, and said to him, 'My dearest son, thou and thy father shall both die on one day and by one hurt, for the cause of justice.' And of what sort was the life of the Bishop, the miracles, done by the grace of God at his tomb, sufficiently declare. And the Earl, like a second Joshua, worshipped justice, as the very medicine of his soul.
LIST OF THOSE WHO TOOK PART IN EVENTS OF IM
PORTANCE BETWEEN 1244 AND 1267.
(The names are given in alphabetical order within their respective ranks.)
PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE, 1244.
SIGNATURES TO THE LETTER OF REMONSTRANCE TO THE POPE,
1 246. Richard, E. of Cornwall,
Earl of Norfolk, Earl of Derby,
Earl of Oxford, Richard, E. of Gloucester,
Earl of Winchester, Humfrey, E. of Hereford,
Earl of Aumâle, and others. Earl of Leicester,
SIGNATURES TO THE LETTER OF GRIEVANCES TO THE KING, 1258. Earl of Gloucester,
John of Alditheley, Earl of Hereford,
Hugh Bigod, Earl of Leicester,
John Fitz-Geoffrey, Earl of Norfolk,
Peter de Montfort, Earl of Warwick,
Peter of Savoy. Count of Aumâle,
FIRST COMMITTEE OF TWENTY-FOUR, 1258.
Royalist. Archbishop of Canterbury,'
Henry Wengham, Aylmer, Bp. elect of Winchester, John, Earl of Warenne, Fulk, Bishop of London,
John, Earl of Warwick, Abbot of Westminster,
Henry of Almaine, John of Darlington,
Guy of Lusignan, John Mansel,
William of Valence.
| The membership of the Archbishop of Canterbury is uncertain bui most probable. The framers of the Lords' Report think that the Earl of Gloucester was elected on the kings side ; it is possible he was elected by both parties. See above, p. 193, note, and Stubbs, Const. Hist. ii.
THE COUNCIL OF FIFTEEN, 1258.
Royalist. Archbishop of Canterbury,
J. of Alditheley, John Mansel,
P. of Savoy. Earl of Warwick,
Baronial. Bishop of Worcester,
Count of Aumâle, Earl of Gloucester,
J. Fitz-Geoffrey, Earl of Hereford,
R. de Gray, Earl of Leicester,
P. de Montfort, Earl of Norfolk,
REPRESENTATIVES OF THE COMMUNITY, 1258. Bishop of London,
Hugh Despenser, Earl of Winchester,
John de Gray, Giles de Argentine,
Thomas de Gresley, John Balliol,
Roger de Monthaut, Philip Basset,
Roger de Sumery, Humfrey Bohun,
John de Verdun.
COUNCIL OF TWENTY-FOUR TO TREAT OF AID FOR THE KING, 1258. Bishop of London,
Philip Basset, Bishop of Sarum,
Giles de Erdinton, Bishop of Worcester,
J. Fitz-Geoffrey, Earl of Gloucester,
John de Gray, Earl of Hereford,
Thomas de Gresley, Earl of Leicester,
Fulk de Kerdiston, Earl of Norfolk,
John Kyriel, Earl of Oxford,
P. de Montfort, Earl of Winchester,
R. de Monthaut, Count of Aumâle,
Roger Mortimer, G. de Argentine,
P. of Savoy, John Balliol,
Roger de Sumery.
I The framers of the Lords' Report, on the authority of Fæd. i. 378, writ dated 18 Oct. 1258, give the name of H. Despenser and the Earl of Winchester instead of John Mansel and the Count of Aumâle. I have given the list of the Fifteen according to the list in Stubbs, Const. Hist. ii. 82 : see above, p. 195, note.
? I have given the name of H. Bohun the younger instead of his father the Earl of Hereford, as it seems hardly possible that the Earl should have been a member both of the Council and the Representative Body. Professor Stubbs however (l. c.) gives the Earl as one of the latter.