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as they passed through the press. My best thanks are also due to Dr. Hort, to the Rev. H. R. Luard, and to Mr. Henry Bradshaw, for their kindly assistance and encouragement.

The references in the notes to Rish. Chron. are to the Chronicle of Rishanger, edited by Mr. Riley for the Master of the Rolls; those to Rish. de Bellis, &c. are to the other Chronicle attributed to the same author, edited by Mr. Halliwell for the Camden Society.

KINGS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE:
January 1877.

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SIMON DE MONTFORT.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

§ I. RISE OF PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT.

THE Norman kings of England, in their efforts to found an absolute monarchy, made good use of every opportunity to crush the power of their mightier vassals, while, as a balance to that power, they kept alive, if they did not actively encourage, the remnants of national feeling and popular government. This community of interest, however slightly developed under his predecessors, bore fruit under Henry I; in the struggle between him and his nobility the people stood by their king. Under his successor the pent up spirit of feudalism burst forth; it had its day and proved for ever its incapacity for government. The exhaustion of the older baronage, and a natural reaction against the anarchy of the preceding reign, enabled Henry II to rebuild the edifice of monarchy on foundations deeper than those which had been laid

B

CHAP.

I.

1066-1215

General

view.

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