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" that some mariners, who had Mount Carmel, in Palestine, and a cargo of nitrum (salt, or, as finding no stones to rest their some have supposed, soda) on pots on, placed under them some board, having landed on the masses of nitrum, which, being bank of the river Belus, fused by the heat with the sand small stream at the base of of the river, produced a liquid
and clear stream; such was the during the absence of the family origin of glass. The ancient to preserve them from accident. Egyptians were certainly ac- A hundred years after that date quainted with the art of glass- the use of window-glass was so making. The earthenware beads small in Scotland, that only the found in some mummies have upper
in the royal an outer coat of coloured glass ; palaces were furnished with it, and among the ruins of Thebes, the lower parts of them being pieces of blue glass have been fitted with wooden shutters to found. The manufacture of this admit or keep out the air. important substance was long Glass is formed by the fusion carried on at Alexandria, from of flint, or flinty matter, such as which city the Romans were fine sand, together with some supplied with it; but before alkali, --soda, potash, ammonia, the time of Pliny it had been or the like. The nature of the also introduced into Italy, material produced will depend France, and Spain. Glass uten- upon the quality and proporsils of various kinds have been tions of the ingredients emfound among the ruins of ployed; and thus an infinite Herculaneum.
variety of kinds of glass may The use of this material in the be made. But in commerce glazing of windows is compara- five kinds only are recognised, tively of modern date, at least in first, bottle or coarse green northern and western Europe. glass; second, broad or coarse In 674, artists were brought to window-glass ; third, crownEngland from abroad to glaze · glass, or the best window-glass; the church windows at Wear- fourth, plate-glass, or glass of mouth, in Durham ; and even in pure soda; fifth, flint-glass, or the year 1567 this mode of keep- glass of lead. ing cold from dwellings was Glass-houses are commonly confined to the houses of the constructed of brick, made in great, and was not universal the form of a cone, varying from even then. An entry made at eighty to a hundred feet in that time respecting a survey diameter, and about as much of Alnwick Castle, the residence in height. Furnaces of various of the Duke of Northumber- kinds are erected in them, land, informs us that the glass formed of such materials as are casements were taken down found best to resist the effects of intense heat; and in these guished. This is called the furnaces earthen pots or cruci- annealing furnace, and the probles are placed, containing the cess of cooling the glass in it is substances,
-flint, alkali, etc.— called annealing. Unless this to be melted into glass. The operation be carefully managed, size and shape of the crucibles the articles formed in the glassvary according to the purpose house can be of no use, because for which they are intended, the the ease with which they are usual dimensions being forty broken, the slightest scratch, or inches in depth, forty inches at even a change of temperature, the top, and thirty at the bottom. often causing them to fly in Those for bottle and crown glass pieces. are open at top, and are from It is impossible to describe here three to four inches thick; those all the several processes employfor flint-glass are covered at ed in making the glass articles. the top, and are made from two which in such great variety we to three inches in thickness. daily see and use. If my readers.
Twelvecrucibles are commonly should have at any time an placed, at equal distances from opportunity to visit a glasseach other, round the circum- house, let them by all means. ference of the furnace, each be- embrace it. They will be suring opposite to an opening in the prised and delighted, particuwall,so that they may be charged, larly with the manufacture of or filled, from time to time by flint-glass. There is perhaps no the workman from without. process in the arts which excites The furnace may
be approached so much the admiration of a on all sides, and ends in a stranger, as that of fashioning chimney, the interior being an this material into all the various arched dome. When the glass objects of congenience and has been melted and fashioned ornament for which it is eminto the shape required, it is ployed. To see a substance, carried to another furnace or proverbially brittle, (in the state oven, not quite so hot as that in which it is used by us,) blown necessary for fusion, and is suf- with the human breath, pulled, fered to remain there for several twisted, cut, and then joined days ; the heat being allowed again with the greatest ease, to diminish by slow degrees never fails to strike with until the fire is quite extin- astonishment those who are unaccustomed to the sight. The not appear to have received any tools with which all these improvement from the beginning operations are performed are of of the manufacture. the simplest description, and do
RESISTING TEMPTATION. again into his head how nice
the almond would be; it was LITTLE boy, five years only one, it could never
be old, was one day taken missed. So he walked again
by his aunt to a drug- toward the seat; but, calling gist's shop, and there he ob- to mind the command of God, served an almond which had
was heard to say to himself, fallen from the counter on the “Thou shalt not steal," and seat just below it. He wished immediately going away from very much to take it, but the place of temptation, he knowing it was not right to remained at the door of the take that which belonged to shop until his aunt was ready another, he walked to the shop to go home with him. door. Still, however, he could Dear children, pray that you not help thinking of the almond; may be enabled to follow the he returned, looked atit, touched example of this little boy. it with his finger, and then “Resist the devil, and he went away again. But Satan, will flee from you.” who is always ready to tempt “Enter not into temptation." children as well as grown-up people to commit sin, put it
for me ;
THREE LITTLE GIRLS. Lulu has found out a beautiful
play, NE, two, three !
Scattering the ashes every way; Don't you see? While baby Elsie, the sly little All little girlies belong
minx ! ing to me:
Can spill her milk and look wise as There's Katie so busy, and mis- a sphinx.
chievous Lou, And Elsie, who nothing as yet can One, two, three! do
As you may see, But eat, and sleep, and kick out her There's work enough in the world
feet, And “make believe” angry and So many little wants to supply, look very sweet ;
So many times to sing “lullaby,” “A terrible trouble,” some folks So many little garments to sew,say ;
And the faces are always dirty, you Their father and I think another know,way.
So busy the days, so wearied the Like a miser his store,
Half the time going in putting to We count o'er and o'er Our treasures, though well we knew
rights. them before, And number them out like houses
As you may guess, – and lands;
And I confess,Six little feet, and six little hands, There are anxious thoughts that at Two that are grey and four blue
Hopes, plans, and fears for a future Three little heads we think won
But all the mother can do is to Three rosy faces with each a small pray, nose,
“ Father, watch them with Thy Thirty fat fingers and thirty fat
sleepless eyes, toes.
And out of Thy wisdom make me
wise.” — They look very quiet, There comes a sweet voice, as But, I'll not deny it,
pleading as may be, They're capable, sometimes, of Down goes the pen, and up comes making a riot.
-a baby! There's Katie, my eldest daughter, She likes to dabble her hands in the