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Fiat Justitia Ruat Cœlum.
Philanthropic and Literary,
PRINCIPALLY CONDUCTED BY A LADY.
For the Genius of Universal Emancipation. Notwithstanding the frowning aspect of the times, there is abundant cause of encouragement for the friends of universal emancipation,-numerous incentives to still greater diligence, imperative requisitions to the performance of known duty, and a steadfast perseverance in their course, despite of opposition, threats, and dangers, the all that can cheer and animate the heart, and suseye of faith piercing the veil of futurity, beholds tain the soul amid the difficulties that attend the advocates of a cause so unpopular, (in this en
The principle of total abstinence from the products of slave labor is gaining ground, and acquiring new advocates in different sections of our country. A new society has been formed in Ches-lightened age) as that of justice, of mercy, and ter county, Pa. as will appear from the following letter to members of the Female Free Produce Society of Philadelphia. Such associations are springing up in different parts of the free States, showing the progress of sound anti-slavery principles among the people.
Our long delay in answering your acceptable epistle of 9th mo. last, is attributable partly, to the very limited sphere in which we move, in relation to obtaining, possessing, and communicating useful and interesting knowledge on the important question of negro slavery.
We ardently hope you will not withhold from us, one ray of knowledge that would have a tendency to aid the glorious cause of emancipation.
humanity-and while viewing in perspective the the image of the Deity) to freedom, and rights restoration of a multitude of beings, (created in long cruelly withheld, the heart glows more warmly, is kindled with holier emotion, and anthems of thanksgiving ascend before the throne, that the soul is permitted to see them led out from the darkness of ignorance, the misery of guilt, the wretchedness of poverty, and the awful desolation of souls, without hope of salvation, into the enjoyments of the untrammeled spirit; into the possession of knowledge, and virtue and religion; to share the blessings of him who hath brought them out of a state of darkness, and "out of the house of bondage." But to effect this will require the union of all their forces, and the combination of mental energy;-denunciations against the slave system are useless; expressions of feeling for its unhappy victims, senseless cant, if unaccompanied by efficient action. Leave these lamentations for souls too sordid to make a sacrifice, and prove to them that you possess
"Hearts that can feel,
We cordially unite, in sentiment with the authors of that letter, in believing that much good may result from a frequent correspondence between the different anti-slavery associations of our union. And souls to act with firm uniting zeal." Though the active opposition made by some, the Were it possible that the christian citizens of profound apathy of many, and the perfect inactivi- this republic could but know half the misery, and ty of others, is at times, to our diminutive associa-guilt, and barbarity, that is practised in the southtion, cause of discouragement; yet, when we reflect upon the justness and the importance of our undertaking, in connexion with existing facts, such as that of finding the press that powerful engine for lessening vice when properly directed, more actively engaged in pleading the cause of the oppressed; the organization of new anti-slavery associations, and the continual addition of intelligent and intrepid individuals to the anti-slavery ranks, we seem to have much cause to be reanimated, and to resolve to persevere, with redoubled energy, in the noble work of emancipation.
In conclusion, we feel a freedom to suggest the following propositions for your consideration, hoping you will frankly transmit to us your knowledge and sentiments respecting them.
First. Would not the free produce cause be aided, by having a clear statement made in some of the anti-slavery publications, respecting the evidences for believing those articles to be the produce of free labor, that are sold for such?
Second. What number of persons are there in the United States, that advocate the cause of abstinence, as an efficient means for aiding the cause of emancipation?
Third. What is the annual amount of the produce of slave holders, consumed by the citizens of the free States?
We remain your sincere friends, and well wish-
ern States, I should not fear its being long tolerated. But to describe the wretchedness of the slave, to paint the scenes of anguish he daily, hourly witnesses, would baffle the tongue and pen, would set at nought the skill of the artist;--language would be mute-the pencil fail to make an impression on the canvass.
Yet they know, all may know, that a system of slavery, the most odious and cruel, ever devised by the most subtle machinations, exists in our country, like the deadly Upas extends its influence over the richest portion, blighting the fairest prospects, and levelling hope with the dust. They also must know, that all who assist in supporting the system, are involved in equal guilt with the slave dealers and that none can be clear, who withhold an effort in their power to make. Energetic appeals to their humanity and sense of justice, have been so frequently made, that it seems superfluous to essay one so feeble as this; if the full tones of manhood are disregarded, what can be expected from infantile pleading. ELLEN. Philadelphia, 1833.
For the Genius of Universal Emancipation.
It was a fine evening in the month of May, all was still around, as my friend and I wandered arm in arm, through the grave yard, in the village of The full moon shone brightly, as our eyes unexpectedly glanced towards the entrance of the yard; when we beheld a poor emaciated being endeavouring to conceal himself behind a tombstone that stood in the eastern part of
Fiat Justitia Ruat Cœlum.
it. As one might readily suppose, our curiosities || met nobody as they proceeded in the shade till were somewhat raised, and with slow steps we sunset, and over the plain in the twilight, till they ventured towards him He tried to hide from our reached the forest. They did not know their way view, appearing in great distress. It was with any further than they had been able to study it some difficulty we persuaded him to tell his tale by observing the stars. They were to travel northof wo. At length he said he was a slave, and had ward when the time come for them to proceed to escaped from his master, now residing in Charles- Mr. Bruce's; but their immediate object was to town, from whence he had come the preceding escape pursuit; and as pursuit would most probaevening, and was going to Philadelphia as soon bly be directed where it would be guessed they as possible. After some farther conversation, we wished to go, they turned due west for the pregave him a note to a friend residing in that place, sent, as soon as they could make out the points of and having procured more commodious lodging, the compass by the lights overhead. They pushwe left him. Several months after, as I was sit- ed on at their utmost speed, disregarding cold, ting at the window, a negro passed, and stopping, hunger, and the difficulties of the way. They accosted me. I gazed for a moment, and then re- || hastily plucked wild fruit when it hung within cognized the poor slave I had seen, now standing reach, now climbing hills, now creeping through before me. He informed me he was then living thick underwood, now helping one another over in the city, had been successful in business, and fragments of rock, and never stopped till day benotwithstanding there had been search made for gan to dawn. Then Nell cast herself down on him, he was apparently safe and doing well; and the ground, and besought her brother to let her now, I often see him assembling with the people rest. He now observed for the first time that one of God, and mingling his prayers with theirs! of her feet was covered with blood, and frightfully swollen. A large thorn had pierced it some hours before, and as she had in her hurry let it remain, it was buried too deep to be easily got out, and she was so lame as to be unable to go further.
The two slaves, whose adventures are related below, had been sold to satisfy their master's debts, and separated from their friends and the scenes of their childhood. Their attempt, so fatal to one of them, was to return to their old master, where they might enjoy the consolation of soothing the latter days of an aged and infirm father, from whom they had been compelled to separate.
BEASTS HUNT MEN IN DEMERARA.
Willy looked round anxiously, and walked from side to side to gaze abroad and see whether this spot was easily accessible from any quarter. He came back presently with a more cheerful countenance, saying,
"The bushes are thick all round us, and the wood is very wild; and there is fruit on the trees, and a little river near, where we may drink. If we could but hide ourselves as long as the sun is up, we might be safe for many days."
"Cannot we pile up these big stones to make a hiding place, Willy? Set them one upon another against this steep part of the hill, and leave a hole behind where we may creep in."
The absent brother and sister were less willing to relinquish the hope of return. Upon this hope they had lived from the moment of their departure: they saw it in each other's eyes, while their Willy found this not very difficult. The hiding captivity was too new to allow them an opportu- place looked outside like a natural heap of fragnity of speaking of it; and they kept it alive by ments of rock, while behind there was a hole sympathy when some relaxation of discipline al- large enough for two people to set upright; and lowed them to exchange a whisper from time to when some dry grass was shaken down to make time. They planned to escape in the night, to the ground soft, the runaway slaves thought they take refuge in the woods, and subsist there as could be content to remain in this narrow dwellwell as they could till the search should be over, ing for a long time. Willy laughed as he had and they could find their way back to Mr. Bruce's not laughed since childhood, when he leaned back estate, and throw themselves at their master's in his dark corner, and Nell smiled as much as feet to petition for such an exchange of slaves as the pain of her foot would let her. Hope had alwould allow them to remain in their old habita-|| ready done her heart good. Twenty-four hours tion. They had no thought of evading slavery sooner she would have made every body near her altogether. They had no means of leaving the melancholy with her groans, for slaves are fond of coast, or of obtaining their freedom within it. The pity, and are made selfish by their wrongs; but utmost they hoped was to spend a life of slavery now, Nell began to feel like a free-woman. under a lenient master, and among those they had could procure no indulgence by complaint, and long known, and could love: a wish not so very she was grateful to her brother for his assistance immoderate or presumptuous, it may be thought, || in making her escape. She therefore hoped that as to merit very severe chastisement. Yet they he would sleep, and remained quite quiet that she knew that no punishment would be thought too|| heavy, if they should be detected in cherishing this hope.
One afternoon, they and their black brethren on the estate were left unguarded, owing to the sudden illness of the driver, who fell down in the field and was carried home in fits. A glance instantly passed from Willy to Nell, and joy was in their hearts that an opportunity of escape should occur so much sooner than they had expected. There was no roll-call that night. If there had been, the brother and sister would have been called in vain, for they were already on their perilous way to the woods. Nobody missed them: they
might not hinder his doing so. Perhaps she would have attempted to sing a drowsy song, if she had not been afraid of betraying their retreat by permitting any sound to issue from it.
Her fit of patience lasted longer than might have been expected from such a novice in the virtue. For a few hours she sat bearing the pain very well, and she might possibly have endured for another if she had not heard, or fancied she heard, a sound which made her heart throb as painfully as her foot. The woods reposed in all the stillness of noon, or she would have supposed the sound to be some freak of the wind among the rocks or the high foliage of the forest; but there
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
was no wind, there was nothing to provoke an echo, and her ears were struck by something too like the distant, the very distant baying of a hound. She laid her hand on her brother's arm. He did not stir. She paused to listen again, before she disturbed him. She had not long to wait. It came again, nearer, and too distinct to be mistaken. She shook the sleeper.
"Willy, Willy! hark to the hounds! The hounds are after us!"
Willy groaned as he started up, and shook some of the stones over head, which rolled down with a great clatter.
"Never mind that, Nell. We could not keep under cover with the hounds upon us. O, if we had but passed a stream in our way! If we could but have baulked the hounds!"
had throttled her brother: but the effort only served to remind her that her arms were fastened. She was asleep or in a stupor when brought back to her hut, a circumstance which was pointed out by a white as conclusive of the fact that negroes have no feeling. As she was too lame to work, however, and not in the best condition for the lash, she was not roused. There was some mercy in leaving her to find out for herself, when she should again be able to collect her disordered thoughts, that the brand and the stocks were waiting for her, and that the days of her bondage must henceforth be spent alone.
For the Genius of Universal Emancipation.
"There is a river below," cried Nell; and Wil- Unmoved, can rest upon the table's load ly was off at the word.
"O, Willy, Willy, do not leave me! I cannot walk. O, carry me with you!"
Willy hesitated a moment as his worse and better nature strove together. He came back for his sister, took her on his back, and began to scramble down to the stream. It was too late, howThe shouts of men were now heard mingling with the loud and louder baying of the bloodhounds, which might be expected the next moment to spring from the bushes upon their victims. There was no hope of getting down to the stream in time, much less of being hidden on the opposite side. Willy cast a hurried look behind him every moment; and when at last he heard a rustling in the underwood, and saw fierce eyes glaring upon him, he laid his burden on the grass, crying,
"I will die!" shouted Willy, and was about to spring into the water. His sister recalled him by her cry.
"Becky; poor Becky! She will be all alone when our father dies."
Willy turned. What his choice would have been cannot be known, for there was no time for choice. Before the slave-hunters could come up to see what happened, a fierce blood-hound had sprung at Willy's throat and brought him down. Once having tasted blood, the animal was not to be restrained by whistle, shouts, or blows, till the long death grapple was over When the mangled negro had ceased to struggle, and lay extended in his blood, the hound slunk back into the bushes, licking his chops, and growling at Nell as if he would make another spring if he dared.
The remaining fugitive had no power to resist,
even if she had had the will. But her will was
annihilated. She had nothing to hope or to fear in the present extremity of bodily and mental misery. She sat quietly on the grass when they tied her hands behind her back. She attempted to walk when she was bid, and submitted to be carried when it was found she could not stand. She did not speak when they took up the body of her brother from its bloody bed, nor start when they tossed it into the stream, though splashed by the plunge.
Of luscious viands, tastefully arranged;-
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GENIUS OF UNIVERSAL EMANCIPATION. VOL. XIII.
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She was conscious but of one passing impulseed during her journey back,-to throttle the man on whose shoulders she was carried, as the hound
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"We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.—Declaration of Independence, U. S. No. 8. VOL. III. THIRD SERIES.]
We are not yet ready to take up this subject, with the view of handling it thoroughly. But as some of the slavite and African colonization papers have opened their batteries against the enterprise, we cannot, willingly, let their misrepresentations and absurdities pass entirely unnoticed.
[WHOLE NUMBER 284. VOL. XIII. self-nominated to the important office of their special guardianship. He goes on to say:
These prejudices entertained by them and fostered, as is well known, by the deluded against removing to Liberia, have been created advocates of immediate emancipation. Misguided fanatics often occasion more mischief than avowed infidels," &c. ****"We cannot but regard these persons as the greatest foes to the best interests of the African race. Their number, however, is few, and though the noise they make is great, their influence is small. Yet if it can be shown, that a settlement in the Texas would answer the purpose of the blacks, we would not lay a straw in their path."
The first open, frank opponent, we have met with, is the veritable Col. Stone, of the New York "Commercial Advertiser." This man is one of the most "fanatical" among the ultra African colonizationists. We may also add, that he is one of the gloomiest bigots, and surliest aristocrats, in the How liberal! how charitable!--and, withal, how United States. He possesses but little stability in intelligent again!! "These prejudices" are all foeither politics or philanthropy-was once a "red mented by the "misguided fanatics" among the hot" emancipator, and now condemns every whites. The colored people cannot think for themmeasure connected with it, but the transportation selves, at all! It is true that "misguided fanatics" of the colored race to Liberia! Popularity is his did create those "prejudices" (or rational concluidol. Whatever sounds large, or makes a splen- sions) in part. But they were the "fanatics" in did appearance, attracts his eager attention, and the ranks of ultra African colonizationists. By resways his superficial judgment. The African co-presenting the free colored people as "nuisances,” lonization scheme has acquired a high degree of popularity among a portion of our citizens; and, whatever may be its real merits, that is sufficient for him. All other plans for the abolition of slavery, &c. must be discouraged. Here is "fanaticism," the most wild and extravagant-ñay, it is absolute fatuity, or moral blindness!
In a long article, headed “Convention of Free Persons of Color," this editor uses the following language:
"Their avowed object is, to devise means to elevate the character and improve the condition of the colored population in this country, and to fix upon a suitable place whither they may emigrate, and where they will no longer endure the depressing inferiority to which, so long as they dwell among the whites, they must always be subjected. It is understood that the delegates are generally, if not altogether, opposed to the Colonization Society,-adverse to going to Liberia, and that they have it in contemplation to plant a colony in the Texas."
This shows that he is ignorant of a great part of the colored people's views and plans. And his ignorance is the more unpardonable, as he has ample means to acquire correct information, and professes to have a thorough understanding of his subject. It never has been their " avowed object" to emigrate, generally, to any place whatever. They do not believe that they will always be subjected to the "inferiority" which colonizationists tell them they must forever endure, if they continue in this country. Many of them can see quite as far into futurity, as those who thus stand
and opposing their continuance in the land of their birth, (which is as justly their home, as it is that of the white man,) they disgusted them beyond measure, and inculcated the opinion that they were "the greatest foes to the best interests of the African race." Their confidence in the utility of that scheme, however, was impaired principally by a thorough and candid examination of it. They are quite as competent for this, as the prejudiced and aristocratic upstarts, who tyrannize over them while they can, and would eject them from their native country, when they are compelled to do them justice. But this sage adviser would be willing that they should emigrate to Texas, if it would "answer their purpose." He has turned many a summerset, and this is put in as a saving clause, to afford an excuse to turn another, should the measure in question become popular. Yet he thinks there are reasons, numerous and cogent, for believing that it will never answer the purpose."--1st. "The conveyance to the Texas would be more expensive, on an average, than a passage to Monrovia." Is the man mad, or has he lost his geography?-or does he calculate that none are to emigrate but those in New York? 2d. "The price of land in Texas is vastly dearer than in Africa." Does he not know that land is given to the Texas colonist, on his paying for the surveying, and a small trifle for commissioner's fees? 3d. "They must conform to the Catholic religion." The writer of this saw a Methodist camp-mecting in Texas about a year ago. 4th. "Very few of our colored
Fiat Justitia Ruat Cœlum.
people are acquainted with the Spanish language." || cipated slaves to Mexico generally, is not of the How do the Germans, &c. make out in the United coloured people's invention. Yet, if they favour States? the idea of a removal from these States, at all, they will look to that region, in preference to all others. They are possessed of sufficient intelligence and sagacity, to form as accurate an opinion upon the subject, as those who wish them back to Africa, now that the time is approaching when they must dispense with their services, as mere "hewers of wood and drawers of water." they will exercise their opinions, notwithstanding the gratuitous advice of those whose prejudices against them are declared to be eternal, and who will do them justice no where.
But,--" admitting all these difficulties susceptible of removal," he thinks they can scarcely get there. If they go "overland," they "must pass through Louisiana;" and the slave-holders would never permit that.--What a pity we cannot have a road through Arkansas, and thus be independent of the omnipotence of the slavites!--but, now I recollect, there is one; and "Uncle Sam" is about making another. Perchance, too, Arkansas may yet be a" Free State !"-who knows? If they "proceed by water," he says, "the navigation would be almost as long, and altogether more dangerous, than the voyage to Liberia." He certainly thinks of no colored persons, but those in New York! He forgets that a portion of our country is separated from Texas by nothing more than lines of longitude, and rivers of a few rods in width. He omits to state that the ports on the coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and || West Florida, are but from three to five days sail of those in Texas; and he must have miscalculated greatly, when he compared the distances, respectively, between New York and the places alluded to. There is, probably, a discrepancy of a thousand miles or so!
Upon the whole, we have seldom seen a more lame and impotent attempt to decry an important public enterprise, than this. Assuming false premises, in the commencement, the author blunders upon errors at every step. Entertaining the most bitter prejudices against the colored people, he is constantly betrayed into mistaken apprehensions of their views and designs. The Convention is not organized for the purpose of encouraging any colo- || nization scheme, at all. Whatever it may do, in the
way of recommending any place, as an asylum for the oppressed and persecuted, this is not its primary object. It contemplates the melioration of the condition of its members and constituents,|| here. It looks to this continent, as the natural and perpetual home of the American colored man. Here he must,--here he will, ultimately, be invested with every privilege, moral and political, that shall be enjoyed by persons of any other color-and it is the wildest of "fanaticism"-the grossest of absurdity-the very essence of folly-to lecture on the propriety and practicability of expatriating the colored race to the country of one half of their remote ancestors. If, indeed, their expatriation is necessary, a moiety should go to Europe; for nearly as many of their ancestors came from thence, as did from Africa! The color of that "race" is not purely "African" now!
The scheme of planting "a colony in Texas"or, rather, of encouraging the emigration of eman
In conclusion:-As the advocates and promoters of African Colonization have frequently, and loudly complained of opposition to their scheme, on the part of the friends of Universal Emancipation, we would advise them to consider whether there would be any impropriety in hurling back their own officious denunciations of other plans and proposals, which are, at least, as important and philanthropic as theirs?
MARYLAND COLONIZATION SOCIETY.
At a meeting of this association, on the 30th of April, last, we learn that the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted. Here is one short step publicly taken towards the advocacy of general emancipation, by a few of those who patronise the African Colonization scheme. Much of their reasoning is unsound and absurd; yet it is cheering to perceive that their eyes are opening. If the "fanatics" of universal emancipation continue their efforts, success will, ere long, crown them with the everlasting laurel. It is something gained, in favour of the cause, when such an association (composed in part of slaveholders) has thus openly decided to act as an AntiSlavery Society Let the most enlightened advocates of the cause continue, assiduously, to collect and disseminate practical information, and they will discover, at length, that something else will be far more effective, in accomplishing their object, than that of colonizing the coloured race on the continent of Africa.
"Whereas, it is the desire of the Maryland State Colonization Society, to hasten, so far as they can, the arrival of the period when slavery shall cease to exist in Maryland; and whereas, the society believe that this can best be done by advocating and assisting the cause of colonization, which is the truest, the safest, and the most efficient auxiliary of freedom, under existing circumstances; and whereas, the cause of colonization, which has already produced great results, and from which so much is still anticipated, must depend in Maryland upon the facilities afforded for the transportation and reception of emigrants on the coast of Africa, which can only be secured to the necessary and desired extent, by the establish