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Fiat Justitia Ruat Colum.
the Republic, to which he had once been elect-produced; light has been elicited; thousands ed. have been roused; both white and coloured are Our limits will not permit us to proceed fur- wielding the tongue and the pen ; and the great ther upon this subject, at present. Next month || Babel of ignorance and cruel oppression is parThis subject will be reit will be resumed, and probably the narration tially undermined. brought down to the latest dates, at which in-sumed anon. telligence from that country shall have been received.
A long article, on this subject, is unavoida-bly deferred to our next nnmber. The question begins to assume a high degree of interest among the true friends of universal emancipation, in this country; and it will speedily be at
"THOUGHTS ON AFRICAN COLONIZATION."
A book, of 76 large octavo pages, has recently been published by Wm. Loyd Garrison, at Boston, with this title : "Thoughts on African Colonization. or an impartial exhibition of the doctrines, principles, and purposes of the American Colonization Society, together with the Resolutions, Addresses, and Remonstrances of the Free People of Color."
TESTIMONY AGAINST SLAVERY. The "Discipline" of the Society of "Friends" requires that a number of "Queries" shall be answered, at stated periods, in the meetings for business. Among these queries, one requires the bearing of a testimony against slavery.Since the abolition of that system, as far as the Society was directly concerned, the answers to this query have generally been merely affirmamative. But we are informed that, at one of the late Yearly Meetings in Ohio, some of the answers were affirmative, with this remarkable exception :-" except an abstinence from the use of the productions of slave labor." These may not be precisely the words used, but the import is the same.
STORES FOR THE PRODUCTIONS OF FREE
relative to the Stores for the productions of free labor, at Philadelphia and Wilmington.In addition to the information, there given, we would observe, that Charles Collins, of New
In the Ladies' Department, of this month's We have not yet had the opportunity to pre-paper, will be found an interesting statement, pare for our readers a review of this work; but we recommend the true friends of African Emancipation to examine it with a careful eye. It contains a mass of testimony, adverse to the claims of that Institution to the title of an Anti-York, still continues his Free Grocery Store, Slavery Association, which must shake the faith of every supporter of its scheme, that looks to it, alone, for the eradication of slavery, upon the principles of justice and humanity. We have never, for one moment, believed that that Society could accomplish the thousandth part of the good anticipated by its honest advocates.Yet we were willing that they should make an effort, in some way, to rouse the public mind from the dead stupor of apathy in which it was so long involved. Nothing was so much to be dreaded as this APATHY. The doctrines, pro- || mulgated by some of the agents and advocates of that Society, though of the most outrageous nature, are not more to be deprecated than the practices very generally prevailing among slave holders. These doctrines were measurably concealed, until the efforts of this Association have|| furnishedthe occasion to bring them to the light. We now have a full assurance of the despotic principles of slavites, from their own lips; and we also know the length, and breadth, and depth, of the horrible prejudice that prevails, even in the free States, against the descendants of Africans. Philanthropists have thus been induced to examine the subject; discussion has been
in Franklin Square, as usual. Isaac Peirce also keeps a supply of similar articles, at 403, Pearl-street, N. Y.-A Store, of the same kind is likewise about to be established in Boston,and several others, in the State of Ohio, and elsewhere. This concern is rapidly extending throughout a great portion of the country; and we may soon hope to hear of experiments being made, in the slave-holding States, that shall prove the superior advantages of free labor, in the cultivation of sugar, cotton, and rice, as well as in the productions of the northern and middle States. A practical experiment, of this nature, in some Southern State, would be worth more, at this moment, than all the theory and all the argument yet brought to bear upon the question of slavery. It is extremely gratifying t learn, that the disposition to encourage the making of such experiments is increasing in many parts of the United States.
Before concluding, we must further observe, that a Society has recently been organized at a place called Green Plains, in the state of Ohio, for the purpose above mentioned. May such associations multiply in every direction, until the demand for "free produce" shall be heard
Fiat Justitia Ruat Culm.
from every quarter, and he born on every | Mexico in 1821, under the vice regal go
vernment, Texas was almost an unknown wilderness. Foreigners of all nations were prohibited under the penal
Some "whole hog" slavite, at Staunton, Vir-ty of an indefinite imprisonment, at the ginia, has returned a copy of the Genius of Universal Emancipation, addressed to Chapman Johnson, Esq. with the following decent expression, written on the margin: "Any man that would publish such a thing as this ought
to be d-d."
DESCRIPTION OF THE TEXAS
caprice of a petty military despot, from tresspassing on its soil; and the few native subjects that had sufficient enterprise to encounter the hazards and privations of a new settlement, were constrained, by their habitual indolence and timidity, to restrict themselves to com. pact habitations. Under these circum
This poor wretch is entitled to pity; yet we || should not consider him worthy of our notice, were it not to be presumed that he resides instances the villages of St. Antonio de the vicinity of the distinguished gentleman to Bexar, La Bahia del Espiritu Santo, and whom the paper was directed, as aforesaid. In Nacogdoches, were commenced, and what relation may we suppose that he stands to small parcels of ground in the vicinity of that gentleman, or the public?--Is he in the pay each were brought into cultivation; and of the United States? under similar discouragements they have lingered along in almost total abstraction from the world, for near a century. The country at large was left to its pri The following is extracted from a letter, out an effort on the part of the governmitive condition; and remained so, withwritten in November, 1830, by David G. Burment to reclaim it, until the final subnet, formerly of Cincinnati, Ohio, and direc- version of the regal power, and the ted to Anthony Dey, Wm. H. Sumner, and emancipation of Mexico from the imGeorge Curtis, of New York. Several grants provident dominion of Spain. Soon afof land had been made to various individuals, ter the institution of the present feder for the purpose of colonization, of whom Bur- al republican government, the settlenet was one. From the information received,||ment of Texas become a favorite point whilein other parts o Texas, the writer of this believes the statement to be substantially correct. Much of the country, here described, is located between the districts, alluded to in the last number of the Genius of Universal Emancipation.
of national policy, and laws of colonization were enacted, expressly to effectuate that object, guaranteeing protection to the persons and property of foreigners, and inviting them to settle on its fertile lands. Under those laws a large portion of the country has been granted, in districts of various dimensions, to Empresarios, or Founders of Colonies, for settlement. The colonies so conceded, comprehend nearly all the land that is desirable for present occupation.*
"Having spent two years in Texas, part of the time in Austin's colony, and the rest of it in traversing the country, to which I am about returning for my permanent residence, in compliance with your request to furnish a brief account of "There are few regions of the globe it, and more particularly of the grants on which the bounties of nature have of Messrs. Zavala, Vehlein and Burnet, been more profusely dispensed, than on I remark, that Texas, in its usual and this delightful country, that is just emermost extensive acceptation, comprises the whole territory lying between the ging from obscurity. The fertility of its soil the amenity of its climate-its consouthwestern boundary of the United tiguity to the ocean-the numerous riStates and the Rio Grande, alias, the Rio Bravo del Norte, the Gulf of Mexico on cheapest transportation to the highest vers which empty into it, affording the the South, and the Arkansas and Missis-markets in the world, for the principal sippi Territories of the United States on products, of its soil,-are such advantathe north. This definition, however, ges as are seldom concentrated in an
enterprising population which is now
is not in strict accordance with the poli-equal degree, and which will enable the tical organization of the country, as the state of Tamaulipas and the department of Cuahuila both cross the Rio Grande, making the Nueces strictly the western limit. Anterior to the independence of
forfeited, and will probably be re-granted
ED. G. U. E.
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coelum.
Sugar, Cotton, Indigo, Rice, Tobacco, and all the fruits common to the temperate zone, as Oranges, Lemons, Grapes, Olives, Prunes, Figs, &c. &c. Burnet's grant, which adjoins the latter on the north, will yield Cotton and Tobacco, together with Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, and all the small grains, and the fruits and vegetables common to the United States. Indian corn grows luxuriantly all over the country; and with the same carefulness of tillage, will yield as plentiful
pouring into it to render Texas the most favored portion of the earth. The territory between the Sabine and the Rio Grande includes a sea coast of about 500 miles extent. In that distance there are but three harbors of considerable importance, to wit: Galveston, Matagorda, and the Brasos St. Iago, the haven of the Rio Grande. That of Galveston is decidedly preferable to the others, and is probably the best harbor between Pensacola in Florida, and Vera Cruz in Mexico.* The bay of Galveston is about thir-ly as in Kentucky or Ohio. The surty miles in length, and varies from twelve to eighteen in width. It receives the river Trinity, the San Jacinto, and some smaller streams; and it at very little labor or expense, be connected by canals, so as to receive the produce of the Sabine on one side, and the outlet of the Brasos on the other both of these places being without a depth of water sufficient for any considerable maritime navigation.
face generally is wo odland, but it is frequenly variegated by small prairies, or natural meadows, containing from 100 to 1000 acres. Many of these primordial clearings present very eligible and picteresque sites for buildings, and render å bountiful harvest to to the plough of the cultivator. Unlike the pioneer settlers in the western wilds of the United States, emigrants to Texas will not have to encounter years of arduous labor in subduing heavy and obstinate forests; but they will be able, in almost every instance, to procure a portion of good prairie, for present cultivation, without any preparatory labor but that of burning the grass with which they are thickly carp eted. The face of the country in these grants is dead levels, on which the water rests and generally undulatory, with few, if any, stagnates, and has no broken or precipi tous hills, or arid plains, that may not be profitably ploughed and planted.
"The Trinity is supposed to be navi. gable during five or six months of the year, ordinarily from January to June, by steam-boats of 100 tons, for about 200 miles above its mouth. If there are any obstructions to its navigation, I am not aware of them. The river Neches also rises near Red river, and traversing Burnet's and part of Vehlein's, it enters Zavala's grant, and discharges into the Sabine bay. The Neches is navigable by the smaller class of steam-boats for "The native Grapes are found growabout 75 miles, and by keel-boats some 30 or 40 miles further. Both these ri- ing luxuriantly in all quarters, and mavers, and indeed all the rivers of Texas, ny of them are of exquisite flavor; while those of Arkansas and Louisiana, owing as of the west generally, are liable, octo the greater humidity of the atmoscasionally, and at some points, to overflow their banks. But these periodical phere in those regions, are comparativeinundations are nothing like as extensively acrid, and liable to untimely blights. as are those of the Mississippi, and its For the same and other analogous reaprodigious tributaries. The beds of the sons, Cotton and the Sugar-cane flourish Trinity and Neches remarkably better, and arrive at greater perfection in deep, and the waters usually recede with- Texas, than in either of those countries. in the banks early in the spring, and are The Cotton is of a finer texture, a longnever productive of the deleterious ex- er staple, more silky, and is confessedly halations which so fatally infect the at-worth 25 per cent. more in New Orleans: mosphere of Louisiana..
"The erops most congenial to the soil and climate in the grants of Zavala and Vehlein, which bound on the gulf, in latitude 29 degrees and 30 minutes, are
* The writer is probably in an error here. learn that the bay of Aransaso, west of the St. Antonio river, and but 20 miles south of La Babiá; affords an excellent harbor for vessels drawing from 12 to 16 feet water.-G. U. E.
and in respect to productiveness, Texas has at least 25 per cent. the advantage. The Sugar-cane grows larger and taller in the stalk, and possesses the saccharine matter in larger proportions and greater purity.
The timber, in these grants, includes which are severvarieties, among many al kinds of Oak, Hickory, Black Walnut, Ash, Wild Cherry, Mulberry, Elm,
Fiat Justitia Ruat Coulm.
Hackberry, Pecan, Linn, Gum, Yellow Pine, &c. &c. Cypress is found on the Neches, but whether in large quantities 1 am not informed. Live Oak abounds in some parts of Texas, and grows to a large size, and will constitute a valuable article of merchandise. Red Cedar is found on some of the uplands, and like the Live Oak, furnishes an excellent material in naval architecture. The Pine grows large and lofty, and will be immensely valuable for lumber. It is most frequently found interspersed with other varieties of timber, as Hickory, Oak, &c. which indicate a good soil.
to this subject. The real cause is, A DETER
NORTHERN OPINIONS ON THE NATIONAL LE
GISLATION, RELATIVE TO SUBJECTS NECTED WITH THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY. The southern politicians do not wish to secede from the Union, but they are resolved to uphold the slave system, at all hazards: and if they cannot coerce the opponents of that sys
tem into their measures, they will "throw them.
selves upon their sovereignty," and endeavor to
establish a separate government.
We are decidedly opposed to every thing like war.-Civil commotion is no part of our business. But it does not comport with the character of a fearless advocate of justice, to -nor with that of a true disguise the truth,— Christian, to "hold his peace" at the bidding of corruption and tyranny. We therefore candidly state what we believe will be the ultimate fate of this nation, if the system of oppression continues; and we call upon all to examine the subject, seriously and dispassionately, and then to act as the best wisdom shall direct.
"One distinctive characteristic of this beautiful country, is its exemption from swamps and stagnant pools. The land invariably ascends from the water courses, and rising to moderate eminences, precludes the formation of swamps or putrid ponds to any injurious extent. This probably is one efficient cause of the singular purity, elasticity, and equability of the atmosphere. While the midsummer air of Louisiana is encumbered with moisture and surcharged with noxious miasma, the pure atmosphere of Texas is renewed and refreshed by lively breezes, fresh from the ocean, rolling over a dry, verdant, waving surface, and imparting health and vigor to all that in-ry will as certainly be abolished in this coun[Conclusion next month.]
THE UNION IN DANGER.
diversity of sentiment-too much dissimilarity
The "signs of the times" are sufficiently ominous to bear us out in the opinion here advanced. Every statesman and politician is familiar with the present proceedings of the people of South Carolina, Georgia, &c. respecting the exercise of authority by the Federal Government. The "Tariff" is only the ostensible, the pretended cause of all the difficulty relating
We should strongly deprecate a dissolution of our political union-as much on account of the colored population, as of the white. Slave
try, at some future period, as that the human race shall continue to inhabit it. If the different States remain under one general government, it may, and probably will, be effected by pacific means-if not, the chair of the oppressor will be sundered by violence. We forbear to dwell upon the awful scenes which the contemplation of this subject presents. May hea-, ven, in mercy, ever avert them from our eyes!
CANADA JOINT STOCK COMPANY. In our last number, mention was made of the contemplated formation of a new associa tion, at Wilberforce, Canada, upon the principle of a Joint Stock Company, for the purchase of lands, &c. We also promised a further notice of this subject. Recent advices from that settlement, lead to the belief, however, that this attempt will not succeed. It is, therefore, considered unnecessary to publish the plan, as requested.—And it is, indeed, extremely doubtful whether the expected good would result from such an undertaking. The present Board of Managers of the Wilberforce Settlement, is composed of men of worth,-and they have now agents out, collecting funds for the same purpose that the new proposed association h in view.
Fiat Justitia Ruat Colum.
The following was received at this office, a few months since, from a worthy clergyman. To the Editor of the Genius of Universal Emancipation.
O! that there were virtue and humanity enough in the nation to demand Con gress to make such an appropriation of the public funds, as is consistent with sustaining objects of minor importance, for the glorious purpose of immediately emancipating a portion of the slaves,* and for educating them for useful service and
Would not such a glorious victory over our own inhumanity, covetousness, and pride, be a second era of our nations's independence?-Rather, would it not be the first? How can our nation be considered independent and free, while so large a portion of our country men whom God hath made of the same blood, and endowed with the same rational powers, are groaning under the oppressor's rod, and have not yet once tasted the blessings and privileges of freemen? Would not such an enterprise of benevolence, by bringing into exercise and useful ope‐
The good cause in which you are laboring with so much commendable ardor, will, I trust, excite increasing interest in the community. We have deep-ra ional enjoyment, as fellow citizens in ly to lament the selfishness and palpable a free and happy country. Indeed a inconsistency of some of our most influplan of education, embracing manual laential political men, who, with the pro- bor, may be adopted, which would, in a fessions and praises of liberty, and the pecuniary respect, support itself. Such rights of man, on their lips, have not appropriations might be continued, until virtue enough in their hearts to stimu-not a single slave could be found, as an late them to adopt some more efficient example of our political byprocrisy, to means to deliver their country from clank his chains amid a nation of free. the foul stain of violating perpetually her own boasted principles of equal rights, and for delivering their fellow men from oppresion and misery. The merited and long delayed judgments of the Lord of Sabaoth, into whose ears the cry of the oppressed Africans hath entered, || may, sooner than many are aware, convince us that righteousness alone truly exalteth a nation, and that iniquity is our ruin. O! that we may awake from our delusion and repent, as a people, before it is to late. We have already cause to tremble, and if we will not, the judgments of the Almighty avenger, who hath declared, "I will repay," will make us. ration an immense amount of intellectuIf it is worthy of a great nation to con- al and moral power, which would othercentrate its talents, its wealth and pow-wise have never been developed, be a er, to remove national impediments to its advancement in prosperity, must it not be far more worthy of such a nation to remove those which are of a moral nature? While large appropriations of the nation's wealth are made, to preserve the citizens of the states in general from the aggressions of foreign nations, which, at present, are only probable, and scarcely feared, shall no appropriation be made to deliver a numerous portion of our countrymen from real oppression, actual aggression, and positive misery? Doth not charity cry aloud, and wisdom put forth her voice to the favored nation, immediately to sit in council, by her benevolent delegates who can feel for the woes of their fellow men, and devise a grand scheme for pouring the oil of joy and gladness into the bosoms of millions of our fellowmen, who would be capacitated to relish the draughts of the delicious cup of liberty equally with ourselves, were they once elevated by education from that degradation into which our own selfishness plunged them?
real and great accession to our nation's true prosperity? Would it not be an accomplishment of glorious memory, and continue to spread a halo of glory around our historic page, when all the false ho nor of military achievement and political intrigue shall be duly estimated and abhorred by the sons of wisdom and virtue?
- Giving all the commendation to the American Colonization Society which is due, and anticipating all the happy results which can be rationally expected fiom its measures, is it not in fact, and must it not be, at least for a long period, taking but a drop out of the bucket of African misery? Let us be thankful for
*The writer does not here distinctly state what course of proceeding he would approve in relation to the "purchase" of slaves, for the purpose of education. We believe that, to educate those voluntarily, freed, and those still in bondage whenever permitted, would answer the views of the writer, as far as we comprehend them.-And, further, no plan of partial purchase should, in our opinion, be listened
to for a moment.-G. u. E.