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But there are gathered a thousand and more communities spread over this great continent, without any systematic form of co-operation. And there is a vehement desire expressed from all quarters for some general and efficient action on this subject, for some well digested system of bringing all our energies to bear upon the church and the world. And there are some that think that had we such an organization as their reason approves, we should carry every thing before us. Nay, that organization is essential to prevent a retrograde movement, and without it we must rather lose than gain, and cease to occupy the territory we have conquered.

There are extreme views on all subjects as well as moderate and rational ones. I have always been a pleader for organization; still organization is not faith, nor humility, nor liberality. We have very compact and efficient organizations in our country without intelligence, faith, or true religion. We may have in theory or in practice an organization as perfect and complete as that of Jansenists or Jesuists, without promoting the conversion of a sinner or the edification of a saint. Still this does not detract any thing from either the necessity or the importance of organization. It only goes to show that it must be organized with faith, intelligence, liberality, and zeal. It is not an organization of corporate bodies, called churches, or associations of churches, under this form or that form of government, that is essential to holiness, happiness, and

No community in America or Europe is better organized than the Roman church. But its organization is rather conservative than aggressive, pledged to maintain a party rather than to promote either piety or humanity.

But we want organization—the setting in order of the things wanting to perfect the church and convert the world. There are, then, two questions to be answered as preliminary to any action on the subject. These are-lst. What shall be the form or character of our organization? and 2d. How shall it be establish. ed? As to forms of social organization, they are generally resolvable into Papal, Episcopalian, Presbyterial, and Congregational. I presume the most efficient are the Papal and Episcopalian. They have efficiency, but what else have they that is valuable? Clergy and laity are as distinct in these institutions as parent and child in the family circle. The Pope or the Prelate wills, and it must, in most cases, be done. We need not argue the comparative merits or demerits of these two. If little thinking, much obeying, and great efficiency be prominent virtues amongst the great masses of society, then the Papal and the Episcopal forms of ecclesiastic


polity are paramount in their claims upon us. There remain the Presbyterial and the Congregational, the Presbytery and the Association. Between these there is little difference. It is more in forms and names than in essences or facts. Associations meet annually; Presbyteries quarterly or semi-annually. I speak not of that indistinct thing called Conferences. They are all Conferences. The Pope, the Bishop, the Presbytery, the Association, have their conferences—their general and their special conferences—the Pope and his Cardinals—the Diocesan and his Clergy-the Presiding Elder and his Conferees—the Presbytery with its two suits of Elders—the Association with its Ministers and Messengers, differ much in some points, harmonize much in others, and are equally good and bad in certain points of view, and in certain emergencies. As human expedients, without a jus divinum, without scriptural authority, they are equally entitled to our consideration and regard. By a jus divinum and a scriptural warrant, I here understand a clear, positive, divine enactment or institution. Have we, then, no scriptural model, no divine precedent or authority for any form of church organization and co-operation? and if so, what is it? We must appoint a committee to examine the subject; and to report in our next number.

A. C.

THE CHOLERA. This pestilence that yet walketh in darkness secretly, after hav. ing travelled from Persia, via all the nations of Europe, and crossed the Atlantic by the Gulf stream, has already reached New Orleans, and in a few days has slain its hundreds in that great commercial city. It will now, according to its well marked course, ascend the Mississippi, and, meandering along its great tributaries, will pay many an unwelcome visit, and spread a fearful gloom over many towns and villages in this fertile valley. It is due to our readers that we give them a few facts of its history, and a few of the most salutary hints and directions which have fallen under our notice in tracing its history, as we have done, from 1830 till now. The following selections are amongst the best that have fallen under our notice.


IMPORTANT FACTS IN ITS TREATMENT. We transfer to our columns from the N. Y. Observer, the subjoined letter from Rev. Dr. Dwight, one of our missionaries at Constan

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tinople. We have muah reason to expect that the cholera will soon revisit our shores. We would recommend to our readers to preserve the papers containing this letter; it may be the means of saving many valuable lives.-Exchange paper.

CONSTANTINOPLE, Aug. 27, 1848. Messrs. Editors:—The cholera is still making dreadful ravages in various parts of Turkey, as well as in some portions of Europe.Mysterious disease! that stretches its gigantic arms from the Red to the White Sea, and at the same monient of time, kills, as in a moment, its hundreds and thousands in Cairo, in Constantinople, and in Petersburg! And thus it moves onward, and onward towards the west, awakening the most gloomy forebodings in nations and countries yet unreached, wbile it leaves sorrow and desolation behind ! Quarantines and milito-sanitary cordons are instituied in vain. They have again and again been proved to be most perfectly useless in staying the march of this dreadful pestilence. No quarantines or disinfecting agents can be of any avail, unless you can adopt means so general and powerful as to change the character of the whole almosphere around us. There can scarcely be a doubt that the Asiatic Cholera as it is called, depends upon a specific cause, and that cause is in the atmosphere. Recent observations seem to show that the electric or magnetic fluid has something to do with it. This is a point upon which some light may be thrown in America, should the disease invade that country as now seems most probable; for the electric telegraphs in operation there are more numerous than in any other country in the world; and if, as has been asserted in Europe, the cholera atmosphere affects these instruments, the fact must surely be observed in America.

The cholera has now existed in Constantinople for nearly one entire year, though much of the time it has been of a mild type, and limited in extent. Within the last month, however, it has shown more malignancy than at any former period, and during one week nearly all who were attacked, died. The number of deaths in the city from cholera alone, during the week, was reported at 1100. At the same time the disease has been raging at Broosa, Nicomedia, Adabazar, Magnesia, Aintab, Aleppo, and various other places in the interior. Trebizond was dreadfully visited a year ago, and now the disease has returned with such violence as to drive almost every body from the city that had the means of fleeing. It has just begun its ravages in Smyrna, where it is to be feared it will be particularly

As I have intimated, this scourge of the human race is moving westward. It will doubtless by and by be heard of in France and England, and then it will cross the Atlantic, as before, to perform its direful mission in America.

My principal object in introducing the subject into this letter, is to communicate some facts concerning its treatment, which have been learned by experience in this part of the world, and which, though they may not be new to professional men in America, may tend to corroborate what they have already observed and heard on the subject, while those of your readers who are not versed in medical science, may have their minds quieted somewhat, in knowing


that there are precautions, which, under God, will in most cases secure safety, even in the midst of the greatest exposures.

The Asiatic cholera, which, when, fairly seated is one of the most unmanageable of all diseases-despising all human art and skill, and mocking all the assiduities of friendship in almost all cases, begins with a mild diarrhea, which in that stage is most readily cured.True, where the cholera is raging we are constantly hearing of persons who arose well in the morning, and are in their graves before night; and it is not to be doubted that there are some cases in which the first attack of the disease is the collapse, from which recovery is rare. But I can say with truth that in every instance of these sudden deaths of cholera, in which I have been able to investigate the circumstances, I have found that the individual had been laboring under diarrhea for some days previous. Generally this is so slight as not to be much noticed; it is attended with no pains, and no sickness of the stomach, perhaps, and gives the person no particular inconvenience. But it is this very diarrhea which is insidiously preparing the system for the most dreadful onset of disease. When. ever the cholera is prevailing in any place, it should be a rule in every case, to stop even the slightest diarrhea immediately. For this we have a remedy always at hand. Opium, in some form or other must be used immediately, and without fear. In the form of laudanum, perhaps, it may be used most conveniently. At such times it should be found in every house; and the master of the family should give the strictest injunction to every inmate of his house, to give immediate notice, if attacked with diarrhea. In mild cases, six drops of laud. anum for an adult will be sufficient to check the disease. The dose should be repeated every four hours, until the diarrhea is stopped.This is a most important direction. In severe cases of diarrhea, a larger dose must be used, and the dose may be increased indefinitely without the least injury, so long as the effect of checking the diarrhea is not produced. I have been called upon to prescribe in a great multitude of cases of cholera, in this incipient stage, and I have found every one of them yield to this medicine. The prescription is one which our good brother, Doctor Smith, left with his brethren in Turkey, in anticipation of the cholera, when he was returning to America; and by the blessing of God I do believe it has saved thousands or lives. Our native brethren in Nicomedia, and Broosa having been instructed on the subject by Dr. Smith, have been exceedingly useful as instruments of checking the disease in a great multitude of cases. Many even of their worst enemies among the Armenians have flocked to them for this medicine, and having proved its virtues, have become their best friends.

I have used with the best effects, in many severe cases, when there was much pain, and a tendency to cramps, and coldness in the extremities, a mixture of equal parts of laudanum, tincture of rhubarb, and tincture of camphor. Of this, eighteen drops may be given for an adult at a dose in mild cases, to be increased according to circumstances. Of all epidemic or contagious diseases, none excites more general alarm than the contagious cholera, and yet I know of none that gives more timely premonitions of its approach, and that is so perfectly under human control, (so to speak,) as this in its ear. ly stage.

Of course, when there is a tendency to diarrhea in cholera times, the strictest attention should be paid to diet, and fruits, and crude vegetables should be avoided. Wherever the cholera prevails, it has been found that most people are easily inclined to bowel complaints, and this is an indication that the diet of people generally should be regulated accordingly. A sudden change from a generous to a low diet in such circumstances, has been found quite injurious. A person who

well, should continue to eat very much as he has been accustomed to, except that most people eat too much, as a general rule, and except that fruits and certain vegetables, which at other times would be harmless, under the cholera atmosphere are apt to produce diarrhea.”


It has been frequently remarked that during the cholera in New York, in 1832, that there was no electricity in the atmosphere; but a correspondent of the Journal of Commerce says his records show the contrary of this, and that ten thunder storms were active here during that period. A writer in Chambers' Edinburg Journal maintains that electrical changes are the true cause of such migratory diseases as cholera and plague; and, indeed, of all epidemics. The true remedy, therefore, is the purification of the atmosphere, and the chief object to effect this is Chlorine Gas, which is an ingredient in common salt. Whole streets and towns can be fumigated with chlorine gas as easily as single dwelings.

“In 1832, the town of Dumferline in Scotland, was affected with cholera from the 3d of September until the 23d of October. At that date every street, lane, and alley was fumigated with chlorine gas. Within five days the pestilence was entirely annihilated. In Edinburgh the gas was used, but rather late, and in several other towns with like effect. It was ascertained beyond a shadow of doubt, and to this fact we beg the earnest attention of our readers, and the public at large, that every house in the infected districts in which chlo. rine gas was used as a disinfecting agent in the cholera of 1832, enjoyed an absolute immunity from the disease, and this fact is the great preservative against that frightful disease, and a positive proof that cholera owes its origin to electrical changes in the atmosphere.

Another very simple prevention is recommended by a medical writer, who saw much of the cholera in 1832 and 1834. The weakened state of the stomach, he says, which predisposes to cholera, is so decidedly obviated by eating freely of common salt at our meals, that it is belicved that three-fourths of cases which would otherwise occur, may be prevented by this simple addition to our food. The writer recommends for an adult, a small tea spoonful, three times a day, either at breakfast, dinner, tea, or supper. It may be eaten with fish, animal food, poultry, game, bread, toast, or bread and butter. This is very simple, and should be remembered if the time for using it arrives.”

THE CHOLERA IN GERMANY-HAMBURGH. Authentic accounts state that the disease is still on the increase at

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