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Briefly, within 18 months from its first outbreak, the epidemic had overrun the whole Indian peninsula, and had proceeded, in its course toward Europe, to the hills forming the western boundary of the basin of the rivers Ganges and Jumna. These hills, though their eastern slope was devastated by the epidemic for nearly twelve months, checked its career, to the great joy of the inhabitants of Chittore and other territories lying westward of the range, who thought themselves secure from the terrible enemy which had taken possession of the opposite plains. Their fancied immunity was soon, however, at an end. Suddenly, in July, 1819, the people of Chittore jearned, to their consternation, that the cholera was at Oudepore, the metropolis of the principality; and that entering the royal palace, it had attacked the Prince himself, and had destroyed his Prime Minister in a few hours. In this city, as also at Ajmer and many towns adjacent, it committed dreadful hayoc.
Another pause -this time of two years-ensued. The mountain chain and burning deserts which lie westward of Hindostan seem for a while to hare barred its passage.
In July, 1821, it broke out with tremendous violence at Muscat, Bushire, and Bussorah, the three principal ports of the Persian Gulf. In Muscat alone, 10,000 persons perished. At Bushire the houses were abandoned, the bazars closed, and the streets strewn with unburied corpses.
At Bussorah 8,000 persons, nearly a third of the population, died in eleven days. While raging thus virulently round the shores of the Persian Gulf, the disease also spread rapidly from Bussorah, at the mouth of the Tigris, up to the great basin of that river and its confluent, the Euphrates. In one month it had reached Bagdad, then invested by the Persians, and destroyed thousands, as well of the besiegers as of the besieged.
During the winter of this year (1821) its violence in some degree subsided. Next summer, however, (1822) it resumed its march toward Europe, extending along the Tigris to Aleppo, and along the Euphrates to Ezeroum, in Armenia. It was raging in this town when the Persian army (who had the infection among them) advanced, between 30,000 and 40,000 strong, to fight an equal body of Turks, encamped on high table-land in the vicinity. The Turks were not only beaten, but they became infected during the battle; and, in. deed, the victors as well as the vanquished fell by thousands beneath the strokes of an invisible enemy, more terrible than any human foes. Between 3,000 and 4,000 of the Persians perislied: whole troops deserted, panic smitten; the rear of their line of march was strewn with dead bodies; and, by the time they reached Khooc, scarcely any army remained for the Prince of Persia, their leader, to dismiss. As for the fugitive Turks, they fled doubly routed, to Bakou, on the western shore of the Caspian, spreadiag ihe infection along tha road they traversed.
During the next year (1823) the disease made little further pro. gress. It spread westward from Aleppo to Antioch, and several other ports on the western coast of the Mediterranean, and from Bakou it extended northward, along the western shore of the Caspian, to Astrachan, a Russian port at the mouth of the Volga. Here, however, it only occasioned a mortality of 144 persons, and then died out-it was fondly hoped forever.
Six years elapsed.
During this period the pestilence paused, strangely, on the western skirt of Europe. No quarantine was enforced; no obstacle was opposed to the streams of human intercourse flowing westward from the infected places. The plague seemed to be exhausted, and the alarm which its proximity had excited soon ceased and was forgotten. In the summer of 1829 it again gave signs of its existence in unabated malignity on the western boundary of Europe. It broke out at Orenburg, a town on the Tartar frontier, 400 miles up the river Oural, which extends northward from the Caspian Sea, whose shores the disease had ravaged in 1823. In Orenburg, and in the surrounding province, a tenth of the inhabitants were seized and about a fourth of the smitten perished. This second warning renewed for a moment the forgotten Tears of the Europeans. But no measures were taken to resist the impending pestilence.
With the subsidence of the disease during the winter the apathy of Europe returned. No steps were taken to abate the filth and misery of their overcrowded towns. Their grave-yards, their slaughter-houses, their reaking cesspools, still loaded with putrid steam and siagnant air; and their squalid populations, with blood already half corrupted and fevered, were suffered to lie strewn in the path of the epidemic, like prey in the path of a lion.
Next year, in 1830, during the heats of July, the smoldering pestilence broke out again in Persia; again crept along the western shore of the Caspian, in!ecting Saliany at the mouth of the Kur, Astrachan at the mouth of the Volga, and many intermediate towns. But this time it spread westward along the valley of the Kur to Tif. llis, which it reached and ravaged within a month. It also ran westward into Caucasia along the rivers T'erek and Kuma. And from Astrachan it ran in 21 days 400 miles up the Volga to Saratoff, where it destroyed within a month 2,367 persons.
From Saratoff it continued rapidly to ascend the Volga toward Moscow, where next month (September 14, 1839) two or three cases were reported.
The Emperor of Russia now became alarmed. He threw a corilon sanitaire round Moscow, established a strict quarantine at its gates, and enjoined a careful isolation of the sick. In spite of these measures the disease spread rapidly, attacking chiefly the squalid inhabitants of a low lying triangular island, formed by two branches of the river, connected by a canal. Here, in six weeks, above 3,000 persons perished. In the height of the panic, while the town was strictly isolated, and the disease universally believed to be contagious, the Emperor Nicholas came himself to Moscow, to raise the spirits of his subjects, by showing himself ready to partake of their danger. It is impossible not to admire the personal gallantry of such conduct. It does not, however, appear that the power of the autocrat was exerted to cleanse the Augean filth of which he boldly braved the perilous effects. The disease continued to ascend to the north west, spreading from the Caspian to the Baltic at such a rate as would have infected all Europe in three months. Considerable apprehensions prevailed; but in our great ciries, the dead were buried
as usual among the living; still men were content to live surrounded by the offal of slaughter houses; and then, as now, they continued to breathe the exhalations of black ditches, of open gully holes, and of noisome tanks, brimming with accumulated ordure.
The results of their supineness soon appeared.
While the Cholera was thus ascending the Volga to Moscow, and thence to Petersburg and the shores of the Baltic, it also spread down the ver Don to the borders of the Black Sea, reaching Odessa and the mouth of the Danube soon after its outbreak in Moscow. The pestilence now made its way across the continent by several parallel streams. Along the valley of the Danube it spread to Vienna, which it reached in August, 1831. Along the shores of the Baltic, it crept from Petersburg by way of Riga and Stettin, to Berlin, where also it appeared in 1831. An intermediate stream reached Warsaw and Cracow in the same year, and ravaged many towns of Poland. The Polish army are said to have taken the disease during a battle with the Russians, as the Turks had previously become infected during a conflict with the Persians.
· From these principal streams the infection was diffused along the roads and rivers throughout Austria, Hungary, and Germany, till, among other places, it reached Hamburg in the autumn of 1831.
Reverting for a moment to the east, we find Egypt attacked in the some year, (1831,) the disease having been brought to Cairo by the pilgrims returning from Mecca, which had itself been infected by worshippers arriving from the tainted ports of Persia and India. At Mecca 20,000 of the pilgrims perished in four days; and at Cairo the mortality was so terrible that even the physicians perished, and the hospitals were filled with shrieking wretches, dying without aid.Constantinople had already, two months earlier, been entered by a pestilentia) stream, branching southward from that which we have already traced along the shores of the Black Sea and of the valley of the Danube, for on its westward progress through Europe to the point at which we left it, (Hamburg,) the pest disseminated its virus to these and many other towns which our limits oblige us to pass unnoticed.
It was early in October, 1831, that Hamburg was attacked. On the 20th of the same month the disease broke out at Sunderland, on our Eastern coast, bronght thither, it is supposed, by an infected vessel from Hamburg.
At that time, strangely enough, France was still uninfected, as also was the Spanish and Italian Peninsulas. Almost simulteously with its appearance at Sunderland, the disease broke out in London among the shipping in the Thames, though not one of the intervening towns had as yet taken the infection. Four months afterward (in February, 1832,) Edinburg was attacked, and a few weeks later the disease appeared in Dublin. It spread gradually throughout Great Britain and Ireland, and destroyed about thirty thousand per
Calais and Paris were affected nearly simultaneously in March, 1832; not, therefore, as might have been expected, by propagation of the disease from Germany along the Rhine, but obviously by a reverted stream from England. From these centres, the epidemic
spread through France, sometimes from town to town, sometimes apparently by leaps, to distant and isolated points. The mortality in this country was much greater than in Britain; Paris alone losing upward of 18,000 souls.
Three months later (June, 1832,) the pestilence appeared at Quebec. In the same month it broke out at New York, and spreading rapidly, ravaged nearly the whole American continent.
While the western stream of virus was thus rapidly completing the circuit of the globe, a reflux current travelling slowly from England in a south easterly direction, attacked Lisbon and Madrid in 1833, spread during 1834 throughout the peninsula, infecting the British garrison at Gibraltar, penetrated in 1835 to Piedmont, Genoa, and Florence, (which the Alps, it would seem, had previously protected,) reached Naples in 1836, and Rome in 1837.
At Naples, a rigorous quarantine proved utterly ineffectual. The city was surrounded with military cordons; the smitten were positively torn from their beds, and isolated in a distant hospital; the physicians traversed the streets, covered from head to foot in black sacks of waxen canvass; with glasses inserted to see through. These terrific measures spread such a panic among the inhabitants that 30,000 fled in a few days; the populace, declaring the fuod to be poisoned, began to rise; the King found it necessary for their pacification to walk through the most infected streets, to partake of the suspected bread, and to suspend the obnoxious quarantine regulations.
Marseilles and Toulon, which had escaped, strangely enough, when France was first overrun, were attacked by the retrograde current in 1835; and from those ports the disorder was carried to Algiers, which it ravaged in 1836, and whence it spread along the northern coast of Africa. In the same year (187) Malta was attacked most severely, losing in 12 weeks 3,784 persons out of a population of 103,344. Here the disease seems to have become evanescent.
From this rapid outline, it will be seen that the Cholera of 1831, in its course to England, had three periods of active progress, separated by two pauses. Two years it took to overrun India; two to pass through Persia to the Caspian Sea; and two to spread through Central Europe to Great Britain. During two years, it paused in its career on the western boundary of Hindostan; during six it smoldered on the eastern verge of Europe. The two southern peninsulas of Europe, isolated in a great measure by the Alps and the Pyrenees, enjoyed a further special respite; nor was it till twenty ycars after its outbreak in Bengal, that this terrible plague had fetched the compass of the habitable globe. In its westward progress, the disease was observed to have added to its former terrors a new and most destructive feature-the consecutive fever, of which thousands perished after surviving the stage of collapse.
After lingering in each country attacked for two or three years after the date of its arrival, the Cholera subsided in Europe. In India, however, it became endemic, raging yearly for a period of several months, and yearly exciting the liveliest apprehensions, lest it should burst its bounds and again overshadow the whole earth.-
Nothing, however, was done to prevent a second invasion, or to meet it, if it should occur. The track of Cholera had been abundantly proved to be that of Typhus, both diseases attacking especially persons debilitated by overwork, insufficient diet, damp, crowded lodging, and close mephitic air. Every where the squalid abodes of the poor and their miserable inmates had been the chief seats and sub. jects of the disease. Yet the filth of London was left to serment in its 300,000 cesspools; the foul tidal ditches of Bermondsey, Shoreditch, and Lambeth, still loaded with their stench the stagnant air; and every year 40,000 more corpses were added to the sodden mass of putrescence on which our metropolis stands. And what is true of London is true also of Moscow and Petersburg, of Berlin, Vienna, and Paris; of Lisbon, Madrid, and Rome. Every where apathy and indolence followed on the subsidence of panic.
Of that apathy and that indolence Europe is at this moment sufsering the consequences. The pestilence now raging has pursued with but little deviations, the track of its predecessor, travelling, however, more rapidiy and committing fiercer ravages than before. Many cities--as, for instance, Petersburg and Berlin-were attacked at the same season, and even in the same month, in 1847, as in 1830. The same streets-nay, the very same bouses-that suffered most severely before, are suffering most severely now; and towns which, like Bermingham, escaped in 1830, are again enjoying a similar immunity
THE BIBLE IN GIRARD COLLEGE. One of the orphans who are being educated in this Institution, having died, his funeral was attended in a religious manner, a portion of the scriptures being read, a hymn sung, and an address delivered, closing with a prayer by the Hon. Joseph Chandler, during which, says one of the daily papers, there was not a dry eye in the assembly. All this seems rather counter to the will of Girard.
The New York Recorder appropriately remarks on these facts as follows:
It, is generally known, that by the will of Stephen Girard, 'no clergyman, missionary, or ecclesiastic,' of any creed or shade, is permitted to pass through the gates or tread the soil within the college enclosures. This contemptible, anti-republican, infidel prescription is carried out, perhaps necessarily by the directors of the institution. They appear, however, determined to show how much of religious instruction they can impart, and how many religious ceremonies they can observe, without the benefit of clergy. So far, I am inclined to think, the devil has cheated himself by this suggestion; and the very controversy excited by this clause of the will has determined the directors to give even a more prominent place to religious instruction and observances, than would have been done, had there been no restrictions. The Bible is read every morning, and the duties of the day commenced by prayer. It is the same in