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been augmented four-fold; and that for the year 1843 was the largest which the Society has ever received from voluntary contributions. But even at present the whole yearly income, including a third part of the collections made triennially under sanction of the Royal Letter, cannot be stated at a higher amount than 60,000l. The expenditure meanwhile is not less than 80,000l.; and this is necessary to maintain the operations of the Society on the present scale; while adequately to supply even the most urgent of the Church in the Colonies, a permanent income of 100,000l. is the least that can be required.
The attention of the Committee has for some time past been anxiously directed to this subject. They have found that the enlarged means of the Society have hitherto been derived principally from Parochial Associations; and they feel assured that, were this parochial organization generally adopted, the most pressing wants of the Colonial Church might be supplied, and many thousands of our emigrant countrymen be supplied with the bread of life.
This plan of forming in every parish an Association in furtherance of the Society's designs has met with the full and cordial sanction of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, who has brought it under the special consideration of the Bishops of his Province; and the Committee feel warranted, therefore, in pressing it earnestly, yet most respectfully, on the immediate consideration of the Clergy generally.
The Committee, however, in the present state of the Church in the Colonies, have deemed it advisable to recommend other supplemental measures for its more effectual succour and relief.
One of these is a recurrence to the ancient practice of the Society, contemplated in its charter, of deputing certain persons, by a formal instrument, to enrol the names of New Subscribers; and it is believed that many, from among the nobility, gentry, and wealthy merchants of England, will be ready to give to the Society a liberal and effectual support. Indeed, the Committee have to express their cordial thanks to many noblemen and gentlemen for the part they have already taken, and for promises of further assistance.
Upward of 100 associations in aid of the Society have been established during the past year. The total number at present is 1170.
Altered Relation of the Society to the Colonial Clergy.
The relation of the Society to the Clergy who are wholly or in part supported from its funds has undergone a considerable change of late years. Since the erection of Bishoprics in all the more important Colonies, the Society has been relieved altogether from the responsibility of assigning districts to the several Missionaries. It now rests with the Bishop to whom they are commended, to station the Clergy, as well as to direct them in their spiritual office. The periodical Reports of the Clergy are addressed to their own Diocesan, who communicates to the Society such portions as he may consider useful to be made known to the great body of the Church at home. Thus the correspondence of the Society is gradually assuming both a more simple and a more regular character; and may, in some sort, be regarded as a Report on the state and progress of the Colonial Church by the Bishops of the several dioceses.
The supply of Missionaries, and of candidates for Holy Orders, is no longer principally from this country. The establishment of colleges of classical and theological education in all the provinces of British North America, has, to a great degree, superseded the necessity of sending out clergymen from England. Codring ton, Windsor, Fredericton, Cobourg, and Lennoxville, are now yearly sup plying candidates for the ministry, not less qualified by learning and devotion than those educated at home, and better trained for the work of an evangelist in their own country, by being hardened to its climate, and inured to the privations and hardships which belong to new settle
Summary of Clergy and Schoolmasters in the Colonial Dioceses.
Toronto, 88- Quebec, 51-Nova Scotia, 78-Newfoundland, 28-Jamaica, 12-Barbadoes, 14-Antigua, 4-British Guiana, 10-New Zealand, 3-Australia, 36-Tasmania, 9-Madras, 28-Calcutta, 12-Bombay, 3.
If to these be added one missionary at the Cape of Good Hope, and one
at the Seychelles, the total will be 378. The Report states
'Of this number, 39 in Canada West are supported by the territorial revenue of the province; and 18 in Nova Scotia, by a Parliamentary grant, limited to the lives of the present missionaries. The total number of missionaries maintained in whole or in part by the Society is 321. In addition to the above list of clergy, the number of divinity students, catechists, and schoolmasters, maintained by the Society, is above 300.
The best, if not the only records of the Colonial Church for some generations past are to be found in the journals and correspondence of the Society; and certainly those of more recent date will not suffer by comparison with the earlier volumes of the series. Never, it may be said, was the Society doing so much as at the present time; nor was there ever a period in which its exertions in behalf of the Church were more needed, or the promise of success greater.
'The question for the members of our Church at large to determine is, not whether a society, however much to be venerated for its age, or esteemed for its work's sake, shall continue to flourish; but whether those branches of the true vine, which have been planted by the Church of England in every province of our colonial empire, shall be suffered to languish during their season of growth, for want of nourishment and succour.
'It has pleased the Almighty signally to bless the Society's missionary labours among the heathen during the course of the present year; and this increase, we trust, is only “as the first-fruits" of a plentiful harvest hereafter to be gathered in from among a peopleprovidentially brought within the reach of the ministrations of our Church. While such success should surely encourage us to make still greater exertions for the diffusion of Christianity in our Indian empire, we must never forget that the settlements of our countrymen in all parts of the world, replenished as they are continually by the accession of new emigrants, afford to our Church a wonderful and unprecedented opening, of which it will be indeed a shame and a sin if we fail to take advantage for the general spread of the Gospel.
'Not, therefore, in its own behalf, but for our brethren and companions' sake-for our fellow-countrymen of the same household of faith-the Society makes its appeal to the love and affection of English churchmen.
For a century and a half the Society has held on its course stedfastly and without faltering, in the way of the Church of England: in the same course, with God's blessing, it will proceed; looking for the fruit of its labour to Him whose Gospel it seeks to propagate, who will have all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth,'
CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW ZEALAND.
The late war at Oruru. Or the war which took place between two numerous tribes at Oruru, about twenty miles from Kaitaia, a detailed account of some particulars connected with this distressing event and of the mitigating circumstances attending it, is contained in the following extracts from Letters received from Mr. W. G. Puckey and Mr. J. Matthews.
Mr. Puckey writes—
'Oruru, as all the old and wise men of these parts declare, belonged to Noble Panakareao by hereditary
right from Poroa; by some of his distant relatives-the father of Pororua, and others-having no land on which to live, were permitted by Poroa to live at Oruru. After a course of years, for some unknown reason, Noble's relations wished to expel them from thence, and repeatedly drove them away; but as constantly did Pororua's relatives return. At last Poroa said, Well, let them remain; my sister is a wife to one of them" and all acquiesced. In the meantime, European Settlers increased; lands were purchased; and Pororua's relatives took the liberty of selling large portions at Oruru and Manganui, which secretly were like goads in Noble's heart; but still the
animosity slumbered, except in occasional grumblings.
'When his Excellency Governor Hobson came to Kaitaia, he acknowledged Noble's right to the purchased lands of Oruru and Manganui, and gave him 100l. and a horse for the whole. No doubt Noble was pretty well satisfied, and would have said no more on the subject, although he thought the sum too small; but Pororua also presented a claim to the Governor, who, hoping to conciliate both parties, and to do away with their ill feelings, made the same pre. sent to Pororua. This, I need not say, vexed Noble a great deal; but still they all lived at Oruru-not, indeed, in charity, although peace was creditably maintained.
At length the Land Commissioner for these parts arrived at Manganui, the land sold by Pororua, and whose right to sell, Noble disputed. The two Chiefs, Noble and Pororua, agreed to let the claims be examined in silence, neither of them saying any thing on the subject; but Pororua remembered not his promise, and stood forth as sole master of the lands which he had sold. And so the quarrel began. Noble refused to acknowledge Pororua's claim, and returned to Kaitaia; and after the Commissioner had stayed a month at Manganui, hoping matters would be settled, he also came to these parts. While he was here, Noble agreed to compromise the matter with Pororua and sent messengers to that effect; but Pororua was very hostile, and shortly after began killing Noble's pigs at Oruru, to exasperate him. They then commenced building a Pa, and our natives, seeing them so engaged, did the same, and collected their forces. It is but justice to the Christian Natives to say that the war was against their inclinations, and that they followed their leader merely from a sense of duty to him.
'It was not to be expected that such a body of natives would quietly live together long when every thing was ready for war; and in fact, after a few depredations on each other, they began skirmishing, and the loss of two or three Chiefs grieved them sorely, and occasioned still more skirmishing. The number killed and wounded was not large: fifteen, I think, were killed; and both killed and wounded together, if I recollect rightly, did not amount
to more than forty. The natives assembled from all parts, and compelled both parties to leave the contested land without occupants for, I believe, four years. So the matter rests; but I hope peace will shortly be permanently established.
His Lordship the Bishop of New Zealand very kindly stayed a week in the camp, trying his best to effect a peace, and so did the Rev. H. Williams and other parties. Mr. J. Matthews and myself were continually backward and forward. It was very gratifying to our feelings to witness the respect and love, I may truly say, with which we were always received by both parties. The Natives seemed to feel that the Missionaries were their best and real friends. Two Europeans from these parts went for the purpose of seeing the battle; but were received very roughly by the Natives, who plainly told them that they did not come to do any good, but merely to look on, and so bid them begone. The conflicting parties had prayers morning and evening; and the Lord's Day was always a day of rest, and observed as religiously as usual. Each party had Divine Service on that day. This shows that there is a real and great difference for the better.'
Mr. J. Matthews writes
'The late event, which has so much unsettled our tribes, was not unexpected by us, and we used every endeavour to keep our Natives
peace; but it appears to be a hard thing to remove the animosity from the human heart, when once fixed. As a body, our Natives are altogether opposed to war; but they say they cannot but obey their Chief, when he requests their assistance. I was much interested one moonlight night, when the war first broke out, in several Christian Teachers, who were conversing with me on the subject of Christian Natives going to assist their Chief. One of them pulled out his Prayer Book, and pointed to the 37th Article, which says that " It is lawful for Christian men, at the command of the Majistrate, to wear weapons, and serve in the wars. "" I was at first rather put to a stand; but managed to explain matters. One of the Natives said, "I will not agree to that Article as being good. It was remarkable that this Christian Native opposed Noble in all his designs of reclaim
ing his lands, and would not fight, but went unarmed into the camp, from time to time, to see his brethren. This man went with me into the hostile Pa, and was much respected by many, because they thought he was consistent in not fighting. About a fortnight ago another Native opened his book, and shewed me the same Article with a pencil-mark against it. The Article, however, was not translated rightly, and has since been altered. The Article, as it stands in the old Prayer Book, has the word
Rangatira," instead of "Kaiwakawa." As every Kaiwakawa may be a Rangatira, while every Rangatira is not a Kaiwakawa (Magistrate), the difference is very striking, and shews what an important thing it is to have the Bible and Prayer Book translated so as to give the true sense of the original.'
The ancient enmity between the Tribes of Tauranga and Rotorua which formerly caused fierce and devastating wars, and which at one time had the effect of breaking up many of the Stations in this district soon after their first establishment, has not wholly subsided. The smothered embers of deadly strife, which have, during the last six years, been restrained from bursting out into a flame by the powerful influence of Christianity, occasionally manifest their existence, and prove that they have not been entirely extinguished. The following Report and Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown, (recently appointed Archdeacon of the district of Tauranga,) will present several distressing proofs of this, interspersed with many gratifying in
dications of the triumphs of the Gospel, notwithstanding the vigorous efforts made by the prince of darkness to maintain his cruel dominion.
'We have often been privileged, in past years, to report, with St. Paul, a great door and effectual is opened unto us: we have now to continue his language, and there are many adversaries. At the commencement of the year, a band of murderers from the Thames, attacking a defenceless Pa of the professing Natives, succeeded in killing six and carrying away thirteen others as slaves. This produced an excitement among the Natives around us that caused the wheels of our Missionary Chariot to drag heavily onward. They were, however, persuaded not to seek for a 'payment" then; but to leave the matter in the hands of Government. Since that period, three more Natives, connected with Tauranga, have been murdered by the Rotorua Natives.
'The baptisms, during the year, have been 154; viz. 93 adults and 61 infants.'
THE IRISH SOCIETY.
THE blessings which have already accompanied the means employed by the Irish Society, furnish an assurance that they are well adapted to the objects desired, and are mighty to pull down the strong holds of Romish error. The aim of the Society is to circulate the Scriptures in the Irish language among the Irish-speaking Roman Catholic population.
When the first missionaries to Otaheite were on the point of abandoning in despair their labours in preaching
the Gospel, they were led to circulate portions of Holy Writ in the language of the natives; from that moment their prospects brightened, and great success was the result of the experiment. So, in Ireland, a similar advantage has been obtained by the operations of the Irish Society, for when the Bible Society was prevailed upon, about the year 1821, to print Bibles in the Irish tongue, the Irish Society immediately availed itself of the measure to
employ an agency to circulate these Irish Scriptures, and to teach the reading of them in the cabins of the Roman Catholic peasantry. Although of course obnoxious to the priesthood, these teachers were every where acceptable to the people, and the cabins which they visited were usually filled with hearers, and the truth was soon apparent that the
entrance of the word giveth light." Irish Bibles were in great demand; and it is a well-established fact, that they are so valued by the Irish peasant, that he will not part with an Irish Bible, though he will give up a Saxon one. There is then this deeply-rooted attachment of the Irish to their native tongue to work upon, and God has so extensively blessed the circulation of his own Word to the adult Romish population, as fully to justify a confident belief that a great harvest is prepared amongst that people, and that labourers only are wanted to gather it in. The acknowledgment of the work has been so manifest, as to justify a loud call upon the Protestants of England to aid this great cause, for certainly no missionary labours of late years can show so large a portion of this evidence of God's blessing resting upon them.
By the last return, 12,000 adults and 5000 children were under the Bible instruction before mentioned. Tens of thousands have received and been taught to read the Scriptures: of these, a considerable number have renounced Romanism, some have emigrated, many have died in the true faith, and from 3000 to 4000, known to have become converts through this instrumentality, now form, or are joined to, Protestant congregations; and in addition to these are a great number who, for various reasons, have not left the Romish communion, but who yet cling to the reading and teaching of the Scriptures.
The agents of the Irish Society are not exclusively Protestants. As the teachers are restricted to simply reading and teaching the reading of the Scriptures, Roman Catholics, competent and willing to be so employed, are engaged; and pay is given to the teachers for those scholars only, who are passed at a periodical examination conducted by clergymen acquainted with the native language.
There are many instances of a
blessing accompanying this employ. ment to the Roman Catholic teachers themselves, a large proportion having left the Romish church, being convinced of its errors from the Scriptures, which they have been engaged in reading themselves and teaching others to read; and indeed the Roman Catholic teachers (as pioneers) form a very important branch of the Irish Society's machinery, as they are received without suspicion by the scholars, and conviction frequently reaches both teacher and pupil without controversy. At one of the periodical examinations, thirty-six teachers were admitted members of our Protestant church, and received the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. At another examination held at Kingscourt, when 300 teachers and scholars attended, all of whom were formerly Roman Catholics, the greater part partook of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, more than 100 doing so for the first time. As another proof of the extended blessing which has been afforded to the Society's labours, a clergyman, on opening a new church at Dunurlin writes as follows I remember, seven years ago, there was only one native parishioner a Protestant, an old man eighty years of age; at the opening of the church 230 children attended, 200 of them belonging to converts from Popery, and a congregation of 500.'
A strong testimony, exceedingly valuable as coming from an Irish priest, is afforded as to the general result upon the Roman Catholic teachers employed by the Society. When warning his flock against the danger of reading the Bible for themselves he told them, that 'out of thirteen Roman Catholics who had become teachers, eight had already joined the Protestant church, and the rest would soon follow.' One extraordinary result which has accompanied this teaching in the Irish tongue is, that a great desire has been manifested to obtain English Bibles, so much so, that in one locality where twelve years before an English Bible had been triumphantly burnt, 700 English Testaments on one occasion were sold in a very few hours; and as a further proof of the value of the Society, it may be stated, that the spirit of inquiry has not been checked by the agitation of repeal. The superintendent of the Kingscourt district writes:-Though political agitation