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countryman whom they wish to benefit, and have not a suitable tract or volume with them at the time, it may be easily sent afterwards by post from some other part of France, at which they are able to procure it.

"The writer has heard the number of English work-people on and connected with the railroads estimated at 20,000. He has no means of ascertaining whether this be above or below the real number. He mentions this for the mere purpose of showing that we may reckon the English work-people in France by tens of thousands. More cases, then, of spiritual want of their own countrymen lie scattered about the path of English travellers in France than they are perhaps aware of."

he would find family after family, not of the lowest order of work-people, but many of them of the superior class of our own manufacturers, brought over to conduct the French establishments. He would find among them many persons of most respectable outward appearance, of much intelligence, and a very earnest desire to receive English books and tracts of a religious nature. Such will listen with pleasure to a word of advice on the subject of religion from the lips of their own countrymen, and in their dear native tongue; and if, by means of advice given, only prayer can be introduced into the family, or the head thereof be prevailed upon to collect his household on the Lord's Day, and to read to them a portion of God's word, and a tract or sermon, with appropriate prayers, a little well of salvation has been opened in a land of dearth, and of the shadow of death, which may be a means of rich and inconceivable blessings.

“The writer is acquainted with the case of an English clergyman, who was obliged to reside upon the Continent from ill health, who found a number of English families connected with an establishment for preparing iron rails for French railways. His compassion was powerfully excited by the wants of the English little ones; they were sent to Roman Catholic Schools, which afforded the only means of instruction in the neighbourhood. He immediately opened a school for them, and gave them what little instruction he could impart during his sojourn in that place.

“ Visitors may do much, where such an effort as this is not practicable, by the bestowal of a hymn-book or a text-book for the children, to supply them with some little scriptural light, where much darkness is existing around.

“The writer must request leave to add, that tracts and books, even English, may be sent with great facility by the French post, from one part of France to another. The payment is about one halfpenny a sheet; a farthing for the half-sheet. If Christian friends have, therefore, at any time, found an interesting case of a fellow

It is hardly possible to describe to you, to make you conceive rightly, unless you were on the ground, the extraordinary politico-religious fermentation through which France is passing at the present time. An unobservant person, or one who travels hastily through the country, might see nothing of it, might know nothing of it, and might come back with the news that all is quiet; but one who looks about him, observes, inquires, converses, reads the journals and the new books, sees that a great movement is at hand. Rome is rousing herself for the conflict, but at the same time great masses of resistance are preparing against her, in quarters where formerly there was no opposition. Rome is gaining power over the Court, the Jesuits increase, they are bold and hardy in their movements, religious persecution is let loose, the Jesuits steal children, and are not yet called to account for it, priests are imprisoned for becoming Protestants; but amidst all this there is preparing a stronger defence of religious liberty, a wider progress of the truth, a more general and better sustained conflict against Rome, than ever has been witnessed in this country.

This year the public mind has been strongly agitated by the conflicts between the Jesuits and the University,

on the subjects of public instruction. The Jesuits pretend to support what they call liberty of teaching, but it is only that they may get all the education of France into their own hands. The University contends that education is to be taken care of by the state, the government having a controlling power over all educational seminaries. The University contends for freedom of teaching apart from the tyranny of priests; but while doing this, it gives altogether too much power to the government over the system of education; the Jesuits profess to espouse the cause of liberty, but in reality it is only the liberty of ruling by themselves.

Books and pamphlets have been published on the one side and the other. A profound and eloquent discourse by M. Thiers, in the Chamber of Peers, occupies an important place, but I am sorry to say it is mingled with doctrines that tend to absolute despotism, while on the other hand, by this barrier of state despotism it would defend the University from the monopoly of Jesuits and Priests. But it is not thus that they are to be conquered.

Quite separate from this question between the Jesuits and the Univer. sity, another discussion has been aroused in regard to the Jesuits themselves, and their detestable maxims, character, and policy. MM. Michelet and Quinet have published together a work, entitled, “ Des Jesuites,” of which, besides an edition in octavo, four smaller editions were exhausted in two months. One who reads this work does not wonder at its success, for it is full of fire, and animated by the spirit of liberty. It speaks out, without the least restraint, in tones that thrill the bosom of the nation, awakening an impulse which in the end will work with irresistible power in France in the cause of religious freedom. When such works begin to appear, one might almost say, in spite of all temporary triumphs of the Romish priesthood, there is an end of religious tyranny.

The work consists of lectures given to the students by these two professors, with notes and appendices.

What they call “ the force of things," that is, I suppose, the current of events, led these two authors, almost simultaneously, to treat of the same subject in their teachings, at first in entire ignorance of each other's movements. Afterwards, in view of the opposition they met with, they agreed to publish their notes in a volume together. Michelet is one of the most celebrated historians of France. It was in the midst of his historical lectures, having encountered the subject of the Jesuits, and treated it with freedom and severity, that he met with those interruptions, which caused in the end the publication of the volume. The notes of the first lecture commence thus: “It is God alone who knows the future; but if he means to strike us again, I pray that he may strike us with the sword. The wounds of the sword are clean and frank, which bleed, but heal. But what can a nation do with disgraceful, concealed sores, which grow old and gain upon the system daily?

“ From such corruptions the worst to fear is the spirit of police in religion, in the things of God, the spirit of pious intrigue, of holy informers, of sanctified accusation, the spirit of Jesuits. Rather may God lay upon us ten times all forms of tyranny political, military, than suffer such a police to pollute our beloved France ! A tyranny has this at least of good in it, that it often rouses the national sentiment, and they break it or it breaks itself. But if this sentiment be extinguished, if the gangrene gets into our flesh and bones, how then will you get rid of it?

“An ordinary tyranny contents itself with the outward man, the actions. But this police attacks the thoughts. The habits of thought become gradually changed under it, and the soul is injured in its depths. But a soul lying and flattering, trembling and vile, which despises even itself, is it still a soul? It is a change worse than death. Death kills only "the body, but when the soul thus dies, what remains ? Death lets you still live in your children ; but here you lose both your children and the future."



I will venture to mix my voice with others to extol the excellence of the Bible; to increase, if possible, the esteem with which I have no doubt you already value it; and to induce you to co-operate for its diffusion throughout the world. And this, in deed, I ought to do, with a deep sense of gratitude for the benefits which I have derived myself from its free use, so far as to have abandoned the path of error and of bondage for that of truth and liberty; for you must know that once that holy book was, as it were, sealed to me. I had, indeed; the permission to read it, but it was on the condition of attaching to every part of it the interpretation of the Church of which I was a professed member. I think I have already said enough to make you infer that I was a Roman Catholic. Yes, my friends, the restrained reading of the Scriptures is the principal characteristic of the Romish Church: she shuts the fountain of life to her children, or, if she allows them the use of the Scriptures, it is on the condition of having their living waters mixed with her corruption. When, through providential circumstances, I was led to search the Scriptures, under the guidance of a revered friend, what a change was wrought in my soul! Then I could understand that there is something of Omnipotence embodied in inspiration. Quotations from the Bible appeared as a clap of thunder, à flash of lightning, or the clear and steady radiance of day; or as if the Almighty himself had broken silence and delivered utterance intelligible, authentic, and decisive to all. I was no more in the awkward predicament of believing things repugnant to the word of God. Had it not been for the free use of the Bible, I might still, probably, have lived in a state of bond age, a devotee to the "commandments of men” and vain ceremonies.

The evangelical seceders of Aigle have just been prevented from meeting for public worship. Under the pretext that a mob would assemble, the Préfet wrote to the Council of State, and was directed to try to persuade the seceders from meeting. As this was not done, the gens-d'armes entered the house, and, “in the name of the law," dissolved the meeting.

A lady at Sion has lately been fined 100 francs for having public worship in her house. A minister of the Gospel having called at her hotel, on his way home from the baths of Loesere, she, being a Protestant, was desirous of profiting by the visit of the minister, and of having worship held in her house. She gave due notice of this to the town council, who made no difficulty on the subject. About twenty persons were present at the service, including the English, the persons belonging to the hotel, and some Protestants of the town. A few days after, à complaint was lodged with the government against the town council of Sion for having permitted an act which violated the constitution. The government was obliged to take the matter up, and she was fined. On this the Roman Catholic bishop visited the landlady, and assured her that she was very wrong in having had the service in her house, aud advised her to carefully abstain from such a thing in future. His lordship concluded by saying, that for this time he would pay the fine for her, which he really did.

Some months since an order was issued that no Protestant in Sion should be permitted to perform in public or in private any act of worship.

Ten days before the above condemnation was pronounced, the Diet refused to acknowledge the constitution of the Valais, because article 2 interdicted the Protestants from performing acts of worship in the canton.

Errata in the Remarks on the Bishop of Worcester's Charge, in our last No. p. 460, col. 1, line 7, for wisdom read evidence.-ib. line 16, for views read errors. p. 461, col. 2, line 8, for lectura read lectern.-p. 463, col. 2, line 2, for far read for. p. 464, col. 2, line 49, for heart read breast.-p. 465, col. 1, line 8, for Triune read Nicene.

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PAUL GERHARDT is generally allowed to occupy, among the hymn writers of Germany, the next place to Luther, whom he excels in vivid delineations of Christian experience. He was born in 1606, at Gräfenhainichen: and in 1651 was still living at Berlin, without any public employment. A tumultuous period, the whole thirty years' war, had then just elapsed; but of his life during that time nothing is known, though he appears to have composed many of his hymns in the course of those years. In 1652, he was minister of Mittenwald, where he married, and remained till 1657. In that year he accepted the third deaconry at the Church of St. Nicholas, at Berlin, which office he filled till 1666; when, in consequence of the lamentable disputes between the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, he received his dismissal.

After he had lived for three years in Berlin witout any charge, he was appointed, in May, 1669, Archdeacon at Lübben. He exercised that function for seven years to the great benefit of his flock,


and departed this life on the 7th of June, 1676. One of his own hymns floated before his expiring memory, and he died with some of its words (“No death can us destroy”) upon his lips.

Shortly before his death he drew up his last will for the benefit of his son, who was then of the age of fourteen, from which the following is an extract:

“Since I have now reached my seventieth year, and have also the joyful hope that my gracious God will shortly release me from this evil world, and conduct me to a better life than I have hitherto enjoyed on earth, I thank him, in the first place, for all the goodness and faithfulness which he has shown me, from my birth even to this hour, both in body and soul, and in all that he has given me. Also, I entreat him, from the bottom of my heart, that when my hour comes he will grant me a happy departure, will receive my soul into his paternal hands, and grant my body a soft slumber in the earth till the last day; when I, with all mine who have gone be

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fore or may remain after me, shall good conscience, though it be not once more awake, and when I shall very much. But should God grant behold face to face my dear Lord, you more, pray him to preserve Jesus Christ, whom, though as yet you from a fạtal misuse of temporal I have not seen him, I have believ- blessings.

“To sum up all-pray diligent“To my only surviving son I ly, study what is honest, live peaceleave little of earthly goods, but I fully, do your duty with integrity, leave him an honourable name, of and remain constant in faith, and which he will not have greatly to then, at the last, you will die, and be ashamed.

depart from this world willingly, “My son knows, that from his joyfuļly, and happily. Amen.” tender infancy I have dedicated him The following poem, which we to the Lord, to be a servant and have translated as a specimen of preacher of His Holy Word. Let his hymns, is remarkable as having him remain steadfast thereto, and been the favourite of the celebrated not turn back because of the diffi- Schiller, whose infant mind his culties he may meet; for God can mother nourished with these sacred amply make up for outward sor- songs. It is also related that a row by inward, heart-felt joy and beggar-child was preserved through spiritual delight.

many temptations by repeating the "In your common life do not stanza, commencing “ Spread both follow evil company, but the will thy pinions wide.” and commandment of your God. Especially,

EVENING HYMN. "1. Do nothing wrong in the hope that it will be concealed; for

Now all the woods are still, nothing is so finely spun but it Beasts, men, town, field, and hill comes to the sun.

The world is all at rest : "2. Be not angry, except when But thou, my heart, arise ! duty requires it. If you observe To Him who made the skies that you are heated by anger, re

Gịve the song He loyeth best. main quite still, and do not speak a word till you have repeated the

O Sun! where canst thou be? Ten Commandments and the Creed.

The Night hath exiled thee"3. Be ashamed of fleshly, sinful

The Night, stern foe of Day!

Go, then: another Sunlusts; and when you at length reach the proper age for matrimony, Upon my heart to pour His ray. marry, seeking the direction of God, and the advice of faitaful, The day has fled afar: prudent people.

Like gold, each little star . “4. Do people good as though Shines in Heayen’s azure hall: they were never to repay you; for So shall I stand and glow, what man cannot repay, the Crea- When from this vale of woe tor of heayen and earth has long

Me my forgiving God shall call. since repaid, when He created you, when He gave Hiş beloved Son for

When we to rest retire

We strip off our attireyou, and when He admitted you to

Type of mortality: the privileges of holy baptism.

When I lay that aside, 5. Fly covetoysness as hell. Christ will, instead, provide Be satisfied with what you may A glorious robe of state for me. . have earned with honour and a

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