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augmentation or increase of motion in accelerated , unlimited number of parts, to supply the necessary bodies. The term is chiefly used in speaking of chasms, and to heighten the general effect. Accomfalling bodies, or the tendency of heavy bodies paniments must be executed with much skill and towards the centre of the earth produced by the delicacy, and in such a manner as to fulfil not only power of gravity; which, acting constantly and the object of the composer, but to admit of the lead. uniformly upon them, they must necessarily ac- er giving the full effect to the composition; which quire every instant a new increase of motion. will otherwise make but a feeble impression; though
in the most skilful hands. ACCENT. Among grammarians, is the raising or lowering of the voice in pronouncing certain ACCOUNTANT. A person employed to comsyllables of words.
pute, adjust, and range in due order, accounts in ACCEPTANCE. Among merchants, is the signing or subscribing a bill of exchange, by which ACHROMATIC. Want of colors; applied to the acceptor obliges himself to pay the contents of telescopes, contrived to remedy the aberrations of the bill. What constitutes an acceptance is, in color. many cases, a nice question of law; but the general mode is for the acceptor to write his name on some ACCUBATION. A posture of the body between conspicuous part of the bill, accompanied by the sitting and lying. In this posture the Greeks and word accepted. In France, Spain, and the other Romans reclined at table; a custom which they countries of Europe, where oral evidence in matters borrowed from the nations of the east. During the of contract is not admitted to the same extent as in first ages of the republic, the Romans sat at meals ; England, a verbal acceptance of a bill of exchange and Homer represents his heroes as sitting around is not valid.
the wall, on separate seats, with a small table before
each, on which was set his portion of meat and ACCESSORY. A person, in law, is said to be drink. When the custom of reclining was first inaccessory to a crime, if he either commands or or- troduced at Rome, it was adopted only by the men; ders another to commit the crime, or furnishes the but afterwards, when the prevalence of luxury had means for its commission. Those who receive, or overcome the sense of delicacy, women also were comfort, any person guilty of murder, or felony, are allowed to recline at table. It was only at supper also considered as accessory to the perpetration. that they were placed in this indulgent posture. In the lowest offences, such as riots and mobs, and They took their other meals without any formality, in the highest, such as high treason, there are no either alone or in company, sitting or standing. accessories, all those concerned being regarded as The Romans arranged themselves at supper in principals.
the following manner-In the cænaculum, or dining
room, three couches were placed around the table; ACCLAMATION. A confused noise or shout, three persons reclining on each couch. They reby which the public express their approbation or clined on the left arm, with the head a little raised, disapprobation of any thing said or done. Acclama- and the back supported by cushions. The feet of tions have been practised in theatres, senates, eccle- the first were stretched behind the back of the secsiastical meetings, elections, in triumphs, and at the ond, and the feet of the second behind the back of celebration of nuptials. The Senate of Rome the third. Thus the head of the second was oppoburst into contumelious acclamations after the death site to the breast of the first, separated only by a of Domitian and Commodus. The theatrical accla- pillow; and when any of them wished to converse mations were connected with music. Nero, who with another, placed higher on the same couch, be was as fond of music as of blood, ordered 5000 sol- was obliged to lean on his bosom. The middle place diers to chant acclamations when he played in the was reckoned the most honorable ; but when a contheatre, and the spectators were obliged to join sul happened to be present at an entertainment, he them. In the corrupt period of the Roman empire, occupied the lowest place on the middle couch: the children and favorites of the emperors were re- because there he could most conveniently receive ceived with loud acclamations, as the French em- and avswer messages. peror was greeted with Vive l'empereur! and the French king is with Vive le roi ! The Turks have a ACERRA. In antiquity a kind of altar erected custom somewhat similar, at the sight of their em- by the Romans in honor of a person deceased; on peror and grand viziers. The form among the which incense was daily burned till the time of his Jews was Hosanna! Before a system of voting is burial. A similar custom prevails among the Chiadopted, we find its place supplied, among all na- nese. In a room hung round with mourning, they tions, by acclamations. So Tacitus informs us that raise an altar, on which is placed an image of the the Germans showed their approbation of a measure deceased, and every one who approaches it, bows by clashing their shields and swords. The Bishops, four times, and offers gifts and perfunies. in the early times of Christianity, were long elected by acclamation. The first German emperors were ACID. In chemistry, a term originally synonyelected by acclamation at a meeting of the people ; mous with sour, and applied only to bodies distinand the Indians, in North America, show their guished by that state ; but it now comprebends approbation or disapprobation of proposed public under it, all substances possessed of the following measures by acclamations.
properties. Acids, when applied to the tongue, excite
the sensation of sour; they change the blue colors ACCOMPANIMENT. In Music, a vocal or of vegetables to red; they unite with water in alinstrumental accessory, which may consist of an most any proportion ; they combine with all the
alkalies, and most of the metallic oxides and earths, sumed that sound passes through 1142 feet of air in and form with them those compounds called in a second of time, and 13 miiles in a minute. chemistry, salts. Every acid does not possess all these properties, but they all possess a sufficient ACRE. A measure of land very general in number to distinguish them from other substances. name, but differing almost in every two places as
to extent, which it is intended to denote. A statute ACONITE, Wolfsbane, or Monkshood. A plant, acre in England contains four square roods; a rood, the flower of which resembles the hood of a monk. containing forty perches or poles, of sixteen and a There are several species of the aconite, most of half feet each; but, in different countries, the length which are violent poisons. The ancients were so of the pole varies, from the statute measure of sixsurprised at their pernicious effects, that they were teen feet and a half, to twenty-eight. In Scotland, afraid to touch the plants; and hence sprung many the acre is larger than in England. The French superstitious precautions about the manner of gath- acre contains one English acre and a half. The ering them. Theophrastus relates that there was a Strasburgh acre is about half an English acre. mode of preparing the aconite in his days, so that it The Welsh acre commonly contains two English. should only destroy at the end of one or two years. The Irish acre is equal to one acre, two roods, It is confidently affirmed, that the huntsmen on 19.27, perches English. the Alps, who hunt the wolves, and other wild animals, dip their arrows in the juice of these plants, ACROSTIC. A poem, of which the first, and which renders the wounds occasioned by them mor- sometimes the final letters of the lines or verses tal. A decoction of the roots has been used to kill form some particular word or words. The middle bugs; and the powder disguised in bread, or some letters, also, are sometimes used for the same purother palatable vehicle, has been employed to de- pose. The French abbés and nobles, before the stroy rats and mice. Matthiolus relates that it was revolution, often exercised their ingenuity in the given by way of experiment to four condemned composition of these poetical trifles. criminals, two at Rome in 1524, and two at Prague in 1561. Two of them died and the other two ACTION. In physics, is the pressure or percuswith great difficulty were recovered.
sion of one body against another. But when a body
in motion strikes against another body, it meets with ACORN. The seed or fruit of the oak; it was resistance from it; and the resistance of the body reckoned, in former times, an important article of at rest will be equal to the blow struck by the body human sustenance. We are told by historians, that in motion ; or to express the same in philosophical the natives in the forests of Germany and Britain, fed language, action and reaction will be equal and in on this fruit as a luxury; and that violent quarrels opposite directions. It appears, therefore, that one sometimes arose between the chiefs of their clans, re- body acting upon another, loses as much motion as specting the division of their crops of acorns. Ac- it communicates, and that the sum of the motions cording to Volney, the peasants of Syria, at this day, of any two bodies in the same line of direction, depend for a considerable part of their food on oak- cannot be changed by their mutual action. From acorns, which they gather upon Mount Lebanon ; the action and reaction of bodies we may learn in for if they raise barley and wheat, the Arabs of the what manner a bird, by the stroke of its wings, is wilderness come in harvest time, and rob them of able to support its weight in the air. If the force their crops.
with which it strikes the air below it, is equal to the
weight of its body, then the reaction of the air upACOUSTICS. Is that science which instructs wards is likewise equal to it, and the bird being actus in the nature of sound. It is analogous to op- ed upon by two equal forces in contrary directions, tics, and is divided into direct, refracted, and reflect- will rest between them. If the force of the stroke ed sound; which may be improved in regard to the is greater than its weight, the bird will rise with object, the medium, and the organ. The first in the difference of these two forces; and if the stroke speaking, in whistling, singing, &c. which are all be less than its weight, then it will sink with the distinct arts and all improvable; secondly, by the difference. In the act of rowing, the water is struck position of the sonorous body. Sound may also be with the oars, in a direction opposite to that in which improved by the density of the inedium, and by the boat is required to move; and the boat is drivthe sonorous body being placed near a smooth wall, en along by the reaction of the water on the oars. either plain or arched; hence the theory of whispering places. Again by placing the sonorous body ACTORS AND ACTRESSES. Actresses, in the near water, its sound is mollified; by placing it on drama, appear to bave been wholly unknown to the a plain it is conveyed to a greater distance than on ancients, men and eunuchs always performing the uneven ground. As to the organ the ear, it is as- female parts. Charles II. is said to have first encoursisted by being placed near a wall, especially at one aged their public appearance in England. Actors end of an arch, the sound beginning at the other; were long excluded from good society, and actressor near the surface of water or the earth ; or by es still longer, and perhaps the English were the instruments, as the speaking trumpet; by a micro- first who adınitted the most distinguished into their phone, or magnifying ear instrument; or by a poly- first circles. At Athens, actors were highly honorphone, or multiplying ear instrument.
ed. At Rome, they were despised, and deprived The usual medium of sound is air; in a receiver of the right of suffrage. The reason of this differexhausted of air a bell can scarcely be heard at ence is, that, among the Greeks, the actors were all. Sound is heard at a greater distance when freeborn citizens, and the dramatic performances carried with the wind or a current of air, than when had their origin in the sacred festivals ; but, among passing in opposition to it. It is now generally as- | the Romans, the drama was introduced by persons of the lowest class, Etruscan players and peasants the bodies are closely packed in rows over each other, of Atella. Actors and actresses continued for along without any intermediate earth, and with only a time, to be treated with little regard in France, after slight superficial covering of soil, not more than a they had been admitted into good society in Eng- foot thick. Each of these pits contained from 1200 land; and in some parts of Germany, ihey were to 1500 bodies, and may be considered as a mass of formerly buried like suicides, in a corner of the animal matter of the dimensions above mentioned. burying ground, separated from the other graves. The first pit that was examined had been filled and
closed up fifteen years before. On opening some of ACUPUNCTURE. A method of bleeding, in the coffivs the bodies were found within shrunk, so use among the Chinese and Japanese. It consists as to leave a considerable vacant space in the upper in driving a fine needle one or two inches into the part of the coffin, and flattened, as if they had been flesh of the afflicted part; and it is applied to the subject to a strong compression; the linen which covmost tender parts of the body. The opinions of ered them adhered firmly, and upon being removed, the cause of relief by acupuncture are various. presented to view only irregular masses of soft, ducSome writers think a galvanic influence on the tile, grayish-white matter, apparently intermediate nerves takes place.
between fat and wax. The bones were enveloped
in this, and were found to be very brittle. The ADAGIO. In music, signifies the second degree bodies thus changed, being but little offensive to the of music from slow to quick. It is applied to mu- smell, a great number were dug up and minutely sic not only meant to be performed in slow time, examined. In some the alteration had, as yet, only but also with grace and embellishment.
partially taken place, the remains of muscular
fibres being still visible; but where the conversion ADDER. A snake of the viper kind. Its body had been complete, the bones throughout the whole is short and thick, and spotted with yellow. Its mo- body were found covered with this gray substance, tion in running is slow; when provoked it throws generally soft and ductile, sometimes dry, but always itself into a coil, flattening the head, brandishing its readily separating into porous cavernous fragments, forky tongue, and hissing as a goose. Like the rat- without the slightest trace of muscles, membranes, tle-snake it springs at a single leap towards the ob- vessels, tendons, or nerves—the ligaments of the arject of its vengeance, about the length of its body. ticulations had been in like manner changed; the The poison of its bite is mortal, unless a proper connexion between the bones was destroyed, and antidote be speedily administered. This venomous these last had become so yielding, that the graveserpent was considerably common in some of the diggers, in order to remove the bodies more conveoldest settlements in New England, forty or fifty niently, rolled each upon itself from head to heels, years ago; but the detested race has been gradually without any difficulty. According to the testimony extirpated.
of these men, to whom the facts just mentioned had
been long familiar, this conversion of animal mat ADHESION. The property of certain bodies to ter is never observed in those bodies that are interattract other bodies to themselves, or the force by red singly, but always takes place in the fosses comwhich they adhere to each other. Adhesion de
To effect this change nearly three years is notes a union to a certain point between two dis- required. Animal matter having once passed into tinct bodies ; cohesion, the union of the parts of the this stage of decomposition, appears to resist for a same body so as to form one mass. Adhesion may long time any further alteration. Some of these pits take place between two solids, as two hemispheres that had been closed above forty years, were, upon of glass, or between a solid and a fluid, or between examination, found to be little else than a solid mass two fluids, as oil and water. Thus it is said that a of soapy matter; nor is it yet ascertained how long fluid adheres to a solid, as water to the finger dipped in common circumstances it would continue uninto it.
changed, the burial ground of the Innocens being so
small in comparison to the population of the district, ADIPOCERE. Is a term formed of adeps, sig- as to require each pit in thirty or forty years to be nifying fat, and cera, signifying wax, and denotes emptied of its contents, in order to receive a new a substance, the nature and origin of which are thus accession of bodies. explained. The changes wbich animal matter undergoes in its progress towards total decomposition, ADMIRAL. The commander-in-chief of a have been, for many obvious reasons, but little un- squadron or fleet of ships of war, or of the entire derstood. But an opportunity for obtaining know- naval force of a country. Probably this word is of ledge on the subject was offered at Paris in 1786 and Arabic origin, and signifies originally the emir, or 1787, when the old burial ground of the Innocens prince, of the waters. It is said, that the Sicilians was laid out for building upon, in consequence of were the first in Europe by whom the title of adwhich, the surface, soil, and the animal remains miral was adopted ; and, that they took it from the contained therein, were removed. The cemetery eastern nations, who visited them. It has also been having been for ages appropriated to the reception asserted that the Genoese were the next who applied of the dead, in one of the most populous districts in the word to the commander of a squadron. This Paris, was eminently well calculated to exhibit the appears to have been done in the time of the cruvarious processes of animal decomposition; and, saders, and about the year
1244. another favorable circumstance was, it contained several of those large pits, fosses communes, in which ÆNIGMA, or ENIGMA. Is commonly called the bodies of the poor are deposited by hundreds. a riddle. The Greek words of which the term is These pits are cavities thirty feet deep, with an area formed, mean an obscure bint or saying. Enigmas oftwenty square feet, in which the shells containing may be either painted or written. In some foreign
universities on the continent of Europe, monkish of the philosophical world. Observing the natural habits still retain so much influence, that the expla- ascent of smoke and clouds in the atmosphere, those nation of enigmas is a favorite scholastic exercise. artists were led to suppose that beated air, if enclosThe true end of language and of arts, however, is ed in a suitable covering, would also prove buoyant. to enlighten, and not to obscure. Enigmas were After several smaller experiments, hy which this idea the invention of intelligent men, who had the mis- was fully confirmed, they inflated a large balloon with fortune to live in countries, and in ages, where and rarefied air, which immediately and rapidly rose to when truth could not be spoken openly. In mod- the height of six thousand feet, and answered their ern times, enigmas can serve no other purpose than most sanguine expectations. that of enabling the inventor or propounder to ob- It was soon found that machines of this kind tain a contemptible triumph over those who do might be so contrived, as to convey small animals, not happen to conjecture their meaning. An apti- and even human beings, through the air with ease. tude at unravelling them is, on the other hand, a The first adventurer in this aerial navigation was talent scarcely to be desired. In all periods, enig- Pilatre de Rozier, a daring Frenchman, who rose in ma-makers seem to have endeavored rather to per- a large balloon from a garden in the city of Paris, plex and entrap than to inform. Hence the under on the 15th of October, 1783, and remained a constanding of enigmas, or dark sentences, became siderable time suspended in the air. He made sevproverbial among the Hebrews, intimating skill in eral aerial voyages afterwards of greater extent, and discovering mysteries, and deciphering intricate in two of them was attended by other persons. In a combinations of letters or sentences.
short time, however, the use of rarefied air, in aërosta
tion was for the most part laid aside, as inconvenient AEROSTATION. In the modern application and unsafe. On recurring once more to the discovery of the term, signifies the art of navigating through of Mr. Cavendish, the philosophers of Paris conthe air, both in its principles and practice. Hence cluded that a balloon, inflated with hydrogen gas, also the machines which are employed for this pur- would answer all the purposes of that contrived by pose, are called aërostats, or aerostatic machines; the Montgolfiers, and would also possess several ad and on account of their round figure, air-balloons. ditional advantages. They made their first experiAir-balloons are of two kinds, those filled with ment in August, 1783, which was attended with rarefied air, and those filled with hydrogen gas. complete success. Since that time, air-balloons The best forms for balloons are globular or oval. filled with rarefied air have not been generally used. Large balloons, for hydrogen gas, must be made of The first aerial voyage in England was performsilk, and varnished over so as to be air-tight. The ed' by Vincent Lunardi, a native of Italy. The car, or boat, is made of wicker-work, covered with diameter of his balloon was thirty-three feet. Soon leather, well varnished or painted, and is suspended after, Mr. Blanchard ascended, carrying up a pigeon, by ropes proceeding from the net which goes over which flew away from the boat, labored for somethe balloon. The hydrogen gas for filling the bal- time with its wings to sustain itself in the air, and loon is procured by putting a quantity of iron-filings, finally returned and rested on one side of the boat. or turnings, with some sulphuric acid diluted with He ascended so high as to experience great difficulwater, into casks lined with lead. From the top ty of breathing, but perceiving the sea before him, of these casks tin tubes proceed, which unite into he descended near Ramsey, about seventy-five one that is connected with the silk tube of the bal- | miles from London, having travelled at the rate of loon. Balloons of oiled silk cannot be made small- nearly twenty miles an hour. er than five or six feet in diameter, as the weight of The singular experiment of ascending into the the material is too great for the air to buoy it up. atmosphere with a balloon, and of descending with
In 1729, Bartholomew Gusman, a Jesuit of Lis- a machine, called a parachute, in the form of a large bon, caused an aerostatic machine, in the form of umbrella, was performed by Mr. Garnerin in 1802. a bird, to be constructed, and made it ascend, by The weather was clear and pleasant, and the wind means of a fire kindled under it, in the presence was gentle. In about eight minutes the balloon of the king, queen, and a great concourse of specta- and parachute had ascended to an immense height, tors. Unfortunately, in rising, it struck against a and Mr. Garnerin in the basket, could scarcely be cornice, was torn, and fell to the ground. The in- perceived. While the spectators were contemplatventor proposed renewing his experiment; but the ing the grand sight before them, Mr. Garnerin cut people had denounced him to the inquisition as a the rope, and in an instant he was separated from sorcerer, and he withdrew into Spain, where he the balloon, trusting his safety to the parachute. Bedied in an hospital. In 1766, the Honorable Hen- fore the parachute opened, he fell with great velociry Cavendish discovered that hydrogen gas (then ty; but as soon as the parachute was expanded, called inflammable air,) was at least seven times which took place a few moments after, the descent lighter than common air. It occurred soon after- became very gentle and gradual. It was observed wards to the celebrated Dr. Black, that if a thin bag that the parachutc, with the appendage of cords were filled with this gaseous substance, it would, and basket soon began to vibrate like the pendulum according to the established laws of specific gravity, of a clock, and the vibrations were so great, that rise in the common atmosphere; but he did not more than once the parachute, and the basket with pursue the inquiry. The same idea was conceived by Mr. Garnerin, seemed to be on the same level, or Mr. Cavallo, to whom is generally ascribed the hon- quite horizontal; the extent of the vibrations, howor of commencing the experiments on this subject. ever, diminished as he descended. On coming to He had made but little progress, however, in these the earth, he experienced some strong shocks, but experiments, when the discovery of Stephen and soon recovered, and remained without any material John Montgolfier, paper manufacturers of France, injury. was announced in 1782, and engaged the attention The fate of Rozier, the first aerial navigator, and of his companion Romain, has been much lament- body of infantry; likewise a title of politeness. The ed. They ascended with an intention of crossing aga of the Janizaries, their commander in chief, had the channel to England. Their machine consisted nearly as much authority as the grand vizier, and of a spherical balloon, filled with hydrogen gas, and was the only person allowed to appear before the under this balloon, a smaller one filled withı rarefied grand siguior, without his arms crossed on his air, designed to diminish the specific gravity of the breast, in the attitude of a slave. The word Aga is whole apparatus. For the first twenty minutes they often used, as a complimentary title in Turkey, seemed to pursue the proper course; but the bal much in the same way as captain in some parts of loon appeared to be much inflated, and the aeronauts the United States. appeared anxious to descend. Soon, however, when they were at the height of three-quarters of a mile, AGAPE. The feasts of friendship, charity, or the whole apparatus was in flames, and the unfor- kindness, in use among the primitive Christians, tunate adventurers fell to the ground, and were were called by this name. The following account killed.
is given of their origin. The first Christians had all The invention of balloons cannot be considered things in common, as we read in the Acts of the as having added much to the comfort or utility of Apostles; but when that equality of possession man. The only practical purposes which it has ceased, as it did even in the time of the apostles, been made to subserve, are those of aiding meteoro- the agape or love-feast was substituted in the room logical inquiries, and of inspecting the fortifications of it. Upon certain days after partaking of the and reconnoitring the camp of an enemy, which Lord's Supper, they met at a common feast, the could not be approached by other means. The rich bringing provisions, and the poor who had difficulties, under which this species of navigation nothing, being invited. labors, appear at present to be insurmountable; The Jews had certain devotional entertainments, and the want of some means to control and regu- | in some degree related to the agape. On their great late the movements of the aerial vessel is so essen- festival days they made feasts for their family, the tial, as to excite a fear that it cannot be supplied. priests, the poor, and orphans; or they sent portions
to them. These repasts were made in Jerusalem. AFFINITY. In law, is that degree of connex. Also, there were certain sacrifices and first fruits ion, which subsists between one of two married appointed by the law, to be set apart for this purpersons and the blood relations of the other. It is pose. no real kindred.
person cannot, by legal succes- The love-feasts of the Christians, during the three sion, receive an inheritance from a relation by affin- first centuries, were beld in the churches without ity ; neither does it extend to the nearest relations scandal, but, in after-times, they became occasions of husband and wife, so as to create a mutual rela- of wickedness. The heathen charged them with tion between them. The degrees of affinity are impurity. This led to a reformation. The kiss of computed in the same way as those of consanguivi- charity, with which the ceremony used to end was ty, or blood. By the Jewish law, marriage was pro- no longer given between different sexes, and it was hibited within certain degrees. Nearly the same expressly forbidden to have any beds or couches limitations are adopted in the laws of Europe and for the convenience of those who wished to eat at America. All legal impediments, arising from af- their ease. finity, cease upon the death of the husband or wifi, excepting, of course, those which relate to the mar- AGATE. A precious stone, which naturalists riage of the survivor. The table of forbidden de have ranked among the demi-transparent precious grees of affinity, by the ecclesiastical law of England, stones. It is supposed that the name agate comes is commanded to be hung up in all churches. from that of the river Achates, in the valley of No
to, in Sicily, which is at present called Drillo; it beAFFIRMATION. Signifies, in one sense, the ing said, that the first agates that were noticed were solemn declarations of Quakers, and of members of found upon the shores of that river. Agates are some other sects, in confirmation of their testimony distinguished with reference to their degrees of in courts of law, or of their statements on other oc- transparency, into two kinds, and called oriental casions, on which the sanction of an oath is required and occidental: the first generally comes from the of other persons. The English laws did not permit eastern parts of the world, as its name implies; and affirmations instead of oaths, in criminal cases, until the second is found in the western, as Germany, 1828. No distinction has been made in the United Bohemia, and other countries. The oriental agate States, between testimonies in civil and criminal is known by its clearness, transparency, and the cases in this respect, it having been permitted to beautiful polish of which it is susceptible: the occiQuakers generally, and, for the most part, to other dental, on the other hand, is obscure, its transparenpersons scrupulous about swearing, to give testimo- cy cloudy, and its polish much inferior to that of the uy upon mere solemn affirmation. Even the Presi- former. All agates from the east have not, howevdent of the United States is allowed to affirm instead er, the perfections for which this class are celebrated ; of taking the usual oath, when inducted into office, and some occidental are occasionally found, that it' he has conscientious scruples about swearing. may be compared to the oriental without disadvanThe privilege of affirination is allowed in Prussia tage. It is more difficult to distinguish the agate only to sects recognised by government, and whose from other demi-transparent stones, such as the principles do not permit them to make oath. False chalcedonix, the sardonix, than to recognise it among affirmation is subjected to the same penalties as stones entirely opaque. Owing to this variety, and perjury in England and elsewhere..
this affinity to other stones, which are its character
istics, the agate has been divided into several kinds. AGA. Among the Turks, the coinmander of a The agate, simply so called, is of one color or