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But the most copious and judicious collection of parallel passages was that published by John Canne, with an edition of the Bible, at Amsterdam, 1644. The title is as follows:
"The Holy Bible, containing the Old Testament and the New, Newly translated out of the Original Tongues, and with the former Translations diligently compared and revised. With marginal Notes, shewing Scripture to be the best interpreter of Scripture."
In a "Preface to the Reader," the Editor quaintly observes, "I do not know any way whereby the Word of GOD, as to the majesty, authority, truth, and perfection of it, can be more honoured and held forth, and the adversaries of it of all sorts so thoroughly convinced and silenced, as to have the Scripture to be its own interpreter. This I am sure, did men in their expositions on the Scriptures speak less themselves, and the Scripture more, the Scripture would have more honour and themselves less."
In 1683, the “ Authorized Version" was corrected, and many additional parallel texts were added by Dr. Scattergood;* and in 1690, Samuel Clark published "The Holy Bible, containing the Old Testament and the New, with Annotations and Parallel Scriptures," &c. In the Preface to this edition of the Scriptures, the Editor states that he took a great deal of pains in collecting parallel texts, and that not only for words and phrases, but for sense and matter. For this purpose, besides places which he added from his own observations, he examined all those which are in Carcellæus's Greek Testament, which are also printed in the Oxford edition, with the various readings, but with many errata. He also examined those in Canne's Bible.
Notwithstanding the intrinsic value of these collections of parallel references, something further was absolutely necessary to facilitate the labour of an extensive collation of the Sacred Writings. The immense time which was of necessity consumed in consulting all the passages to which a reference is made, to say nothing of the impossibility of remembering them so distinctly as to see their aptness and propriety, rendered them of but little service to the generality of Scripture readers. This consideration induced the publication of
"The New Testament, with References under the Text in words at length; so that the Parallel Texts may be seen at one View," &c., by Francis Fox, M. A. London, 1748, 2 Vols. 8vo.
The following table, though extremely deficient, will suffice to shew the progressive increase of parallel texts, in the various editions of the Bible. It is taken from Bishop Wilson's Bible. The editor does not think the subject of sufficient importance to justify the vast expenditure of time requisite to render it a perfect exhibition of the progress made in this department of sacred literature.
This Work, although allowed to be executed with considerable judgment, has many important defects; as, indeed, must be expected considering the time when it appeared, and the few helps which the editor possessed. Although Mr. Fox professed to give the parallel passages in words at length, this is only partially done, the references, alone, being given in very many cases to parallel passages, varying in a few words, a close comparison of which is frequently of the utmost importance in ascertaining the genuine meaning of the inspired records. Nor is the collection so large as is desirable for the biblical student, or as is requisite to exhibit, fully, the harmony of the inspired writers on the subjects of which they treat. To say nothing of the complex nature of the references, the innumerable typographical errors, or the disadvantages to the student, resulting from the editor not having attended to the words supplied, and printed in italics in our version, one objection with many persons, to Mr. Fox's Testament, still remains, i. e. that the Author espouses, and advocates with considerable warmth, one side of a controversy which is now happily subsiding, and the parties in which are uniting for the promotion of Scriptural knowledge.
In 1769, a revised edition of the "Authorized Translation" was published from the Oxford press. In this edition, which was revised by Dr. Blayney, under the direction of the Lord Chancellor and delegates of the Clarendon press, the marginal references were reexamined and corrected, and thirty thousand four hundred and ninetyfive new references were inserted in the margin.
In 1790, the Rev. C. Cruttwell published, in a 4to volume, “A Concordance of Parallels collected from Bibles and Commentaries, which have been published in Hebrew, Latin, French, Spanish, and other languages, with the authorities of each." This is unquestionably the most elaborate collection of texts that has ever appeared, but it is doubtful whether it will repay the labour of even occasional consultation. In addition to the objections which lie against every mere collection of references, Cruttwell's Concordance is objectionable on the following grounds:-1st. The arrangement is faulty. Instead of taking the several members of a passage separately and as they lie in order, parallels are given in succession from different authorities referring to the whole, in consequence of which the attention is divided, and the object of consulting them totally defeated. 2dly. The multiplicity of references which are made to passages in which it is impossible to trace the slightest parallelism* tends only to perplex and
* The parallelism in many of these references, which were taken from different versions of the Scriptures, being merely verbal, is entirely lost in the English Bible. Of this indeed the editor appears to have been fully aware, observing in his Preface," many of the references, especially where they are in a great measure imaginary, might (some persons may think) have been rejected without impropriety; but where the opinions of so many learned men are concerned, the author has not taken upon him to discriminate."
bewilder the mind; while the omission of reference to important and really parallel texts renders the collation extremely defective.
Nor should the "Scripture Harmony," a laborious compilation of half a million of Scripture references, published by Mr. Bagster as a Supplement to his beautiful and valuable " Polyglott Bible," be omitted in this place. In this compilation the Editor has brought together the marginal references of Canne, Blayney, Browne, Scott, and other valuable writers on parallel Scriptures, and has arranged their various contributions into regular order. In this last particular it differs from Cruttwell, but in every other, the remarks upon his "Concordance" may be applied to the "Scripture Harmony.'
For an extensive collection of references to parallel passages, the Editor has no hesitation in saying, that in the margin of Scott's Commentary is by far the best hitherto published; although the subtraction of a few thousands would not render this the less valuable to the Biblical student To this Collection the Editor has been greatly indebted for much valuable assistance in the progress of these volumes. For a collection of parallel references on a smaller scale than Scott's, that in the margin of Mr. Bagster's English version of the Bible, forming part of the Polyglott above referred to, will be found the most judicious extant.
From this rapid sketch of the rise and progress of works in this department of biblical literature, it will be sufficiently apparent that the assistance hitherto afforded has been inadequate to any thing like a general or extensive collation of parallel passages of Scripture, and that the difficulties to be surmounted in such a task are so considerable, that but few will be induced to enter upon it, or at furthest, to continue their labours to any considerable extent.
To obviate these difficulties, and to render a collation of the Scriptures at once pleasing and useful, is the object of the present Work. Such a collection of passages is here given as will elucidate and confirm the text; and, to save the vast trouble attendant on a reference to the Bible, to consult many passages, they are printed in words at length. It has been the endeavour of the Editor to bring together all such as are really parallel and illustrative; to furnish a commentary on the Bible from its own resources; and to exhibit the delightful harmony which subsists between the sacred writers on the subjects of which they treat.
Ουκ ἐν διδακτοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας λόγοις·
Ἀλλ ̓ ἐν διδακτοῖς Πνεύματος ἁγίου.
"Not in words which man's wisdom teacheth;
How far he has succeeded must be left for others to determine; but he thinks it due to himself to observe, that he has neither avoided personal labour nor mental anxiety in order to render his
work as perfect as is attainable through human industry.-He has endeavoured to incorporate every work of merit upon the subject, but although the present contains many thousand parallel and illustrative passages more than any other work in existence, he is too fully aware that it is very far from perfection. Of its imperfections no one can be more conscious than himself, and hence he will feel considerably indebted to any person who may favour him with hints or materials for rendering a second edition, should it ever be called for, more worthy the patronage and support the present one has received.
The Editor solicits attention particularly to the arrangement of the parallels; which, from the additional labour and anxiety naturally arising in effecting it, will not, it is hoped, be considered as the least valuable part of the Work. By a strict attention to the literal meaning of the Sacred text, and by carefully ascertaining the different clauses of a verse, their disposition and connexion, and giving the parallels in their natural order, not only will the more immediate object of the work-the illustration of the Scriptures-be most effectually secured, but material assistance will be afforded to young Ministers in the division and amplification of a text. The parallels belonging to each member of a verse are printed in distinct paragraphs.
In St. Luke's Gospel, the arrangement of the parallels is such as to form a complete and distinct harmony of the Evangelists. Immediately after the text, the corresponding passages in the other gospels are given, and are printed between brackets; so that they may be read either as a harmony of the Evangelical histories alone, or in connexion with the other parallels.
In order to preserve the punctuation and italic reading of the "Authorized Translation," considerable care and application was required; but these will be amply recompensed by the great service which it is anticipated must result from them, i. e. in enabling ministers to quote, in the composition of their sermons, the passages given, without the trouble of turning to them in their Bible; and in pointing out to the unlearned reader those passages which are not found in the original, but are supplied in the translation.
In citing the various passages of the Sacred Volume, considerable care has been taken not to do them violence by too great a separation from their context. This has undoubtedly swelled the size of the Work, but it has ensured to the reader the genuine meaning of the Inspired Writings. It is a fact universally acknowledged, that, by abscinding many passages from their respective contexts, the Scriptures may be adduced in support of the most preposterous and revolting opinions; and it is to be deplored, that too many sincere and conscientious Christians give in to a practice pregnant with so many evils.
With the view of rendering the Work as valuable as possible to the biblical student, the Greek text, printed from Mill's edition of the
"Textus Receptus," is given with the authorized English translation, accompanied with the various readings, which are highly important to the mere English reader in studying the Sacred text. On the real value of these, Dr. A. Clarke remarks: "That the Marginal Readings in our authorized translation, are essential to the integrity of the version itself, I scruple not to assert; and they are of so much importance, as to be in several instances, preferable to the Textual Readings themselves. Our conscientious translators, not being able in several cases, to determine which of two meanings borne by a word, or which of two words found in different copies should be admitted into the text, adopted the measure of receiving both, placing one in the margin and the other in the text; thus leaving the reader at liberty to adopt either, both of which, in their apprehension, stood nearly on the same authority. On this very account, the Marginal Readings are essential to our version; and I have found, on collating many of them with the originals, that those in the Margin are to be preferred to those in the text, in the proportion of at least eight to ten.”*
Considerable difficulty has been experienced in fixing upon a scheme of chronology which should be consistent in, all its parts, and harmonize with the internal evidence of the books themselves. Not being willing to hazard an opinion of his own, the Editor has selected that of Dr. Blayney, as being upon the whole, perhaps, the least liable to objection. Where this has been obviously inconsistent with the data furnished by the writers themselves, for fixing the period at which they wrote, a more probable date has been assumed, and placed at the head of the respective books; retaining Blayney's also in the margin. Upon a subject where so many writers of acknowledged ability have differed, and still do differ, the Editor cannot hope to succeed in satisfying every reader: he can only say, that his chronology has been adopted after a careful perusal and comparison of what has been advanced upon the subject by the most eminent biblical critics.
After this short but circumstantial detail, the Editor feels himself justified in offering the result of his long and unwearied application to the Christian world. In so doing he pledges himself, that the SCIENTIA BIBLICA will not be found a party-book. His great object has been faithfully to cite every parallel passage, without regard to any one theological system, leaving each person to put his own construction upon the words. At the same time, he wishes it may be distinctly understood, that to the doctrines of Grace-the Divinity and Atonement of Christ, the depravity of man, the influences of the Holy Spirit, and their kindred doctrines, especial attention has been given, so as to render them a prominent feature in the Work.
In short his ultimate object has been to assist the great cause of Christianity; and he cannot but regret that the responsibility of this
* Comment. Gen. Pref.