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men, who endeavovred to defend the provision they possessed, were violently beaten ; while the women, who sought to conceal any thing, were dragged by their hair. Even children at the breast escaped not the general fury; so that the same treatment attended infancy and old age.

Among the free-booters who were continually in search of prey, nothing was deemed a more atrocious offence than for the unhappy man who was pursued to outrun bim that followed, and eat his bread before he was robbed of it. No kind of cruelty was omitted in the search for food : persons were tormented in the most exquisite manuct, and in those parts the most sensible of pain. Sharp sticks were thrust up their bodies, and they were otherwise so severely treated, that the recital would give horror ; and all this, perhaps, in order to discover a handful of flower, or a loaf of bread, which had been concealed. These crimes, however, were greatly aggravated by the consideration that those who cxecuted the tyranny had not the plea of unavoidable necessity to urge in their behalf. In fact, it was the mere effect of barbarity, when they were provided with six days' provision in advance. Some unhappy creatures, who had evaded the vigilance of the guards, and slipped out of the town by night, in order to gather sallad and herbs, were unfortunate enough to fall into their hands at a time when they thought themselves least in danger'; and having been stripped of all they had procured at the hazard of their lives, were happy to receive a small part of their own property, in consequence of their earnest prayers and intreatics.

Such was the treatment that the common people received from soldiers : but persons of a superior degree were carried before the usurpers, who directed that some of them should be put to death on a charge of treason, false witnesses being continually produced to swear that they had an intention of betraying the city to the Romans : and one of the constant charges against them was, that they were disposed to have combined with the enemy. Those who had been plundered by Simon were carried to Joho, and the prisoners brought to John were transmitted to Simon, as if they had mutually agreed to triumph in the distresses of their fellow-creatures. In a word, though Simon and Jobn contested for the superiority, they appeared to entertain similar sentiments with respect to the practice and the arts of tyranny. They were partners in robbery; and he was accounted the greatest villain who cheated his accomplice of that part of the booty which each deemed to be equally his property.

Titus plied bis operations with incessant assiduity, in the course of which he lost many men by shots from the walls. The Jews had a practice of quitting the city during the night in search of the necessaries of life; and, in these excursions, they were often attended by soldiers, who could not obtain within the city sufficient to satisfy the demands of nature. The people who thus went out were chiefly very poor ; but they were afraid to desert absolutely, lest their wives and children, whom they left behind, should be murdered ; nor did they dare to take their families with them, from the apprehension of discovery.

These circumstances being well known to Titus, he sent a party of his cavalry to wait for the Jews in the valleys ; and these latter, being reduced to despair through hunger, fell into the snare laid by the enemy. When they found their unfortunate situation, they were compelled to fight, in the dread of a punishment even worse than death in battle: and, in fact, it was now too late for them to think of demanding quarter. In a word, the Jews were subdued ; and having first been put to a variety of tortures, were crucified in sight of their brethren who were besieged. The exertion of this rigour was disagreeable to Titus; but he could not spare men enough for their military duty to attend them as prisoners, por did he think it prudent to give liberty to such a number. Exclusive of these considerations, he hoped that the terrible

example might tend to influence those within the city to avoid a similar fate. The unhappy persons above-mentioned were all crucified, but in a variety of forms, expressive of the hatred, contempt, or rage of the enemy ; but the number of misereble wretches was so great, that crosses were wanted, and even room for executing them. Yet this horrid spectacle was so far from having its proper influence on the faction, that it wrought an effect directly contrary to what was intended; for the friends and relations of the fugitives, and all those who seemed inclined to listen to terms of accommodation, were compelled to come down to the walls, and observe what was to be expected by those who deserted to the Romans; and, on this occasion, it was insisted that the sufferers were not prisoners of war, but deserters who had made their submission and implored mercy. By this contrivance many were prevented from going off till the fact came to be known, though there were a number who cscaped to the enemy, in the mere dread of being starved, which they considered as a more deplorable death than that of crucifixion.

Hereupon Titus gave orders that scveral of the prisoners should have their hands cut off, and in this condition he sent them to John and Simon, so that it was not possible they should be mistaken for deserters : and by these people he sent his advice, that an end might be put to the war, before he should be absolutely compelled to destroy the city, intimating that the Jews, on a proper submission, had yet an opportunity of preserving their lives, their country, and their temple.' In the mean time, however, Titus did not neglect to forward his works, cncouraging those who laboured on them: to be indefatigable, having determined that bis preparations should be followed by convincing'proofs, that what was not to be effected by the laws of reason should yield. to those of force.

The Romans began their platform on the twelfth day of the month Artenisius ; and after seventeen days incessant labour, completed them on the twenty-nintlı. There were four of these platforms, and they were works of a very capital nature. One of them, which was near the fortress of Antonia, was constructed by the fifth legion opposite the middle of the Struthian Pool : the twelfth legion threw up another at the distance of twenty cubits from the former : opposite to the pool named Amygdalon, another work was thrown by the tenth legion, which was more numerous than the other. legions: and a fourth mount was erected by the fifteenth legion, at a sinall distance from the monument erected to the memory of John the high-priest.

As soon as the works above mentioned were completed, John gave directions for digging a mine under that facing Antonia, and that a number of props should support the earth from falling. This being done, the wood-work was covered with a bitumia nous inflammable matter; after which, John ordered that the pillars should be fired ; and the props being destroyed, the whole fortification fell to the ground with a hideous crash. At first, no fire appeared, only dust and smoke, till at length the flames burst forth to view. The Romans were astonished at the sight, and perfectly distracted to think that their views were thus defeated on the moment that they thought themselves certain of success. As their ramparts were destroyed, they conceived it would be fruita. less to attempt to quench the fire.

Two days after this circumstance, Simon and bis associates made an attempt on the other two mounts, where the Romans had by this tinie planted their battering-rams, and began their operations. Jephthæus, a Galilean of the city of Gasis ; Megassarus, a domestic of queen Mariamne ; and Agiras (otherwise the lame) the son of Naba. tæus of Adiabene, greatly distinguished themselves on this occasion. They ran with turches in their bands, and, forcing their way through the troops of the enemy with as. much unconcern as if there had been no opposition, they set fire to the works ; and

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though they were opposed by darts and arrows, they resolutely persevered in their intention till the whole erection was in a flame. These three men were esteemed among the bravest that took part in the war.

When the flames began to ascend, the Romans sent a body of troops to the relief of their brother soldiers ; but, in the mean time, the Jews violently assailed them with shot from the walls, and in total disregard of their owu safety, made a vigorous attack on those who were endeavouring to stop the progress of the fire. The Romans used every effort in their power to save the battering-rams, the covers of which were by this time consumed ; while the Jews advanced even into the flames to prevent them ; nor would they let go their hold, though the iron work was then of a burning heat. was now tio possibility of preventing the fire passing to the ramparts; and when the Romans found that they were encompassed with flames, and that no hope remained of saving their works from destruction, they retreated to their camp.

Such numbers from without the city now came in as reinforcements to the Jews, that this additional aid gave them such fresh spirits and courage, that, fluslied with the hope of conquest, they advanced even to the camp, and made an attack on the guards. The office of the Roman gvards, according to the strictoess of their discipline, was to perform their duty alternately relieving each other ; and the man who quitted bis station, under any pretence whatever, was certain of suffering death without mercy. Thus assured, from the very nature of their station, that they must suffer the infamous death of deserters if they did not fall like men of honour, they made so resolute an opposition, that some of those who had fled thought themselves under a necessity of returning ; when they made such resistance, by means of their engines, that the excursions of the Jews from the city were stopped. These Jews had sallied forth with the utmost fury, unprovided even with weapons for their defence, attacking all they met with without distinction, rashly rushing among their enemies, and throwing themselves on the points of their pikes. In a word, the advantages of the Jews at any time gained over the Romans were less acquired by real courage than rash precipitancy; while the Romans, little afraid of any essential injury the Jews could do them, often yielded to the violent impetuosity of their opponents.

When Titus returned from Antonia, where he had been to fix on a proper spot for carrying on the siege, he severely reprimanded his troops for permitting themselves to be attacked in their own works, when they had possessed themselves of those of the enemy, and yielding to be besieged by those who could be considered as no other tban prisoners. After this, Titus made a selection of some of his best troops, and, surrounding the Jews, charged them in the flank ; while they, on the other hand, sustained the charge with astonishing resolution. When the parties met, there was such a borrid noise, and the dust flew in such clouds, that it was impossible to see or hear any thing distinctly, nor could friends be distinguished from foes. This obstinate resistance of the Jews arose niore from despair than from any great idea they had of their own power. On the contrary, the Romans were so enraged, partly from a sense of military honour, and partly from a concern for the safety of their general, who was in imminent danger, that if the Jews had not retreated to the city in the very moment that they did, every one of them would have been utterly destroyed. Still, however, the Romans were hurt at the reflection of having lost their bulwarks, and that what they had been so loog in erecting should be demolished almost in an hour. In consequence of this disa ntment, the Romans began to despair of accomplishing their design.

During this situation of affairs, Titus issued orders that bis principal officers should be summoned to a council to advise with him how to act in the emergency. Some of the most violent among them recominended an immediate attack with the whole army,

and coming to a general battle, alledging that nothing had yet deen done but by way of skirmish ; but if once a vigorous assault was made, the darts and arrows alone would insure victory over the Jews. Those of more reflection gave their forces for the te-edification of the ramparts : while'a third party were totally against having any fortifications, but advised that care might be taken that no provisions should be carried into the city ; trusting that famine would effectually do the business, and that victory might be obtained without a blow. being struck ;, alledging, that persons driven to despair would hold their resolution even to death.

Though Titus did not think it perfectly honourable to lie inactive at the head of so Jarge an army, yet he was not disposed to attack a people who sought their own destruction with such determined resolution. The want of materials rendered it impracticable that he should erect new ramparts ; and with regard to the preventing provisions being carried into the city, he thought it would be equally impossible, on account of the exteut of the place and the number of avenues. He considered, that if the common roads were to be all blocked up, yet the Jews, who were acquainted with all the secret passes in the neighbourhood, would, when driven to absolute necessity, find out some secret places of conveyance. He reflected, that if the Jews should, by stealth, convey any relief into the city, it would tend only to protract the siege, and the delay thereby occasioned would lessen the honour of the victory.

Titus directed his officers immediately to begin the erection of the wall, and let the whole army take a share in the business, assigning to each party its proper station. These orders were no sooner issued, than every soldier was animated with a wish to exceed his fellows in this work. The ground was measured nut, the legions were divided, and every man was emulous who should most effectually distinguish himself. The common soldiers copied the example of the serjeants, the serjeants that of the captains, the captains that of the tribunes, and the tribunes that of their superior officers ; the whole being under the direction of Titus, whose zeal for the dispatch of this business was such, that he was continually taking his rounds to superintend the whole proceeding.

This wall commenced at a place named the Camp of the Assyrians, where Titus himself held his bead-quarters. Hence it was continued to the Lower Cænopolis, carried forward by the way of Cedron to mount Olivet, which was inclosed to the south as far as the rock Peristereon, and this inclosure comprehended an adjacent hill which commands the Vale of Siloah. From this place, it inclined somewhat to the west, and was carried on to the Valley of the Fountain. Its next direction was to the sepul chre of Ananus, the high-priest : after this, it inclosed the mountain on which Pompey had heretofore encamped. It then turned to the north, and was extended to a village named Frebinthonicus. It included the sepulchre of Herod on the east side ; and soon afterwards was joined to that part of the wall where the building originally commenced.

Nine and thirty furlongs was the whole extent of this wall, and thirteen forts were erected on the outside of it, ten furlongs being the compass of each fort. It is somewhat extraordinary, but no less so than true, that this amazing work was completed in three days, though an equal number of months might have been supposed a reasonable

As soon as it was finished, garrisons were placed in all the forts, who did duty under arms every night. On each night, likewise, Titus went the first round in person ; Tiberius Alexander, the second ; and the officers who commanded the legions, the third. Some persons were constantly on guard in the forts during the whole night : but some of the soldiers were allowed to rest alternately with others who were appointed to watch.

The above-mentioned inclosure of the Jews within the town reduced them to the last degree of despair ; for by this time the famine had increased to such a height, that whole families fell a sacrifice to its rage. The dead bodies of women and children were seen in every house: the old men were found dead in all the narrow lanes of the city; while the younger men, who were yet able to walk, appeared like ghosts parading the streets. It became impossible to commit the bodies of the dead to the ground. Many of the living were unable to perform this charitable office; wbile others were unwilling to take it, partly discouraged by the numbers of the deceased, and partly by the reflection that themselves could not survive any considerable time. Numbers of them expired even while they were burying their fellow-citizens ; . and some, prompted by despair, sought their own graves, and interred theinselves, that they miglit be certain of a place of repose. Yet miserably distressful as the present situation of these wretches was, not a single complaint or lamentation was heard; for the pangs of excessive hunger absorbed every other passion. They who last expired beheld those who had gone before them with unweeping eyes, and looks marked with the near approach of death. The most profouud silence reigoed tirrough every part of the city; and, during the course of the night, heaps of dead bodies were frequently piled on each other. Yet a more melancholy part of the story (if more melancholy can be) still remains untold. This arose from the brutal insolence of a number of abandoned thieves, who broke into the houses, that at this time appeated like charnel-houses, and having stripped the bodies of the dead, they derided their situation : exclusive of which, they ran their swords into the bodies of persons who lay half expiring. When any despairing wretch called for some friendly hand to dispateh him by a sword, that he might no longer endure the miseries of famine, this earnest request was constantly refused with the most unteeling barbarity. When any of the unfortunate reached the moment of death, they turned their faces to the temple, and thus closed their eyes ; lamenting, at the same time, that the vile incendiaries who liad profaned the holy place should be yet left among the liviog.

the living. When the offensive smells, arising from the corruption of the dead bodies, became insupportable, an order was given that all of them should be buried at the public expence: the abaudoned incendiaries threw them from the walls into the vallies ; a sight that occasioned so much horror to Titus, that, while he was going his rounds, and found the ditches infected with dead bodies, and pestilential vapours arising from them, he extended his hands towards heaven, and made a solemn appeal to God that these misfortunes arose not from any orders that he had given.

The insurgents were now soʻpent up within the walls, that they found it impossible for any of them to quit the place. In the mean time, they endured all the pang's of famine aggravated by the tortures of despair ; while, on the contrary, the Romans lived at their ease, and passed their time very agreeably, being amply supplied with the necessaries of life from Syria and the adjacent provinces. Encouraged by their better, fortune, many of the Romans advanced to the walls and made an ostentatious display of their provisions, with a view to reflect on the necessities of those who were in cir cumstances of distress. 'All this appeared to have no effect on the unfeeling minds of the seditious multitude : whereupow Titus, in mere compassion to the residue of an unhappy people, determined immediately on the erection of new works, and resolved that no time should be lost in their completion. One considerable difficulty indeed now occurred, which was the providing the proper materials for carrying these works into execution ;. for all the wood in the neighbourhood of the city had been cut down for the erection of the former works : whetefore, they were under a necessity of fetching all the timber for this second supply from a place of ninety furlongs; and herewith

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