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strength, and learning to “prove all things, and hold fast that which is good.”

That, through this little work, the Editor may be useful in his day and generation to his youthful friends, by enlarging and facilitating their acquaintance with that Holy Book, in which alone are contained the words of eternal life, and treasures of wisdom that will never fail, is his sincere and fervent prayer.

EDWARD ROBINSON Theol. Sem. Andover, April, 1833.






A, the first letter in almost all years. Num. 20:22, &c. In Deut. alphabets. In Hebrew, it is called | 10:6, he is said to have died at aleph; in Greek, alpha, Both Mosera, which was probably the the Hebrews and Greeks used station close by mount Hor, their letters as numerals; and whence he ascended into the hence A (aleph or alpha) denoted mount. one, or the first. So our Lord ABADDON, or APOLLYON. says, “I am alpha and omega, The former name is Hebrew, and i. é. the first and the last, the be- the latter Greek, and both signify ginning and the end." Rev. 1:8, the destroyer. Rev. 9:11. He is 11. 21:6. 22:13. Omega was the called the “ angel of the abyss," last letter of the Greeks.

i. e. the angel of death, or the AARON, the son of Amran destroying angel. and Jochebed, of the tribe of Le- ABANA and PHARPAR, vi, and elder brother of Moses. | rivers of Damascus. 2 K.5:12. Ex. 6:20. He was three years | Interpreters have been much diolder than Moses, Ex. 7:7; was vided in regard to the streams the assistant of the latter in bring-probably designated by these ing Israel out of Egypt, Ex. 7:1, names. One of these undoubt&c. and was then consecrated as edly is the present Barrada, (the the first high-priest, Ex. c. 28, 29. cold,) the Chrysorrhoas of the Lev. c. 8. Yet he fell sometimes ancients, which rises in Antilibinto grievous sins; he made the anus, and flows through Damasgolden calf at Sinai, Ex. c. 32 ; || cus. Just above the city, it is he joined Miriam 'in sedition divided into several artificial against Moses, Num. c. 12; and branches, which pass around the with Moses disobeyed God at city on the outside, and afford Kadesh, Num. 20:8-12. God, water for the numerous gardens therefore, did not permit him to by which the city is surrounded; enter the promised land; but he while the main stream passes died on mount Hor, in Edom, in through and waters the city itthe fortieth year after leaving self. Below the city, they again Egypt, at the age of about 123 || mostly unite, and the river loses


itself in a marsh a few miles S. E. || offered of the fruits of the earth. from Damascus. If we now sup- God had respect to Abel's sacripose that originally there were | fice, and not to Cain's; bence but two branches in all, (the others Cain in anger killed Abel. Gen. being a work of later times,) c. 4. The meaning is, that Abel these two branches may perhaps || trusted in God, and therefore," by have been the Abana and Phar- | faith," offered a more acceptable par..Another supposition is, sacrifice than Cain. Heb. 11:4. That one of the two streams is the II. ABEL is also prefixed in Barrada; while the other may the names of several places, as be the little river Fijih, which Abel-Beth-Maacuh, Abel-Carrises near the village oflike name, maim, &c. In such cases it sigin a pleasant valley about 15 or nifies place. 20 miles N. W. of Damascus. ABIA, in the N. T. the same Dr. Richardson describes it as as ABIJAH in the 0. T. which issuing at once from the limestone rock, a deep, rapid stream ABIATHAR, son of Ahimeof about thirty feet wide. It is lech, and high-priest of the Jews. pure and cold as iced water, and, When Saul sent his emissaries to after coursing down a rugged Nob, to destroy all the priests channel for above a hundred there, Abiathar, who was young, yards, falls into the Barrada, fled to David in the wilderness, which comes from another valley, || 1 Sam. 22:11, &c. with whom he and is here only half as wide as continued in the character of the Fijih.

high-priest. Saul, it would apABARIM, mountains east of pear, transferred the dignity of Jordan, over against Jericho, on ihe high-priesthood from sthathe northern border of Moab, || mar's family to that of Eleazar, within the limits of the tribe of || by conferring the office upon ZaReuben. It is impossible to de- dok. Thus there were, at the fine exactly their extent.


same time, two high-priests in mountains Nebo, Pisgah and Israel ; Abiathar with David, and Peor were summits of the Aba- Zadok with Saul. This double rim. Num. 27:12. 33:47,48. | priesthood continued from the Deut. 32:49.

death of Ahimelech till the reign ABBA, a Syriac word signi- || of Solomon; when Abiathar, atfying father. When the Jews || taching himself to Adonijah, was came speak Greek, this word deprived by Solomo of his was probably retained from their priesthood. 1 K. 2:27. The ancient language, as being easier race of Zadok alone exercised to pronounce, especially for chil- | this ministry during and after the dren, than the Greek pater. Rom. || reign of Solomon,

excluding the 8:15.

family of Ithamar, according to ABEDNEGO, a Chaldee name the prediction made to Eli the given by the king of Babylon's high-priest. 1 Sam. 3:11, &c. officer to Azariah, one of Daniel's A difficulty arises from the cir. companions. Dan. 1:7.

cumstance, that in 1 K. 2:27, 1.'ABEL, the second son of Abiathar is said to be deprived Adam and Eve. He became a of the priest's office by Solomon; shepherd, and offered a sacrifice | while in 2 Sam. 8:17. 1 Chr. from his flocks to God, at the 18:16. 24:3,6,31, Ahimelech the same time that Cain, his brother, son of Abiathar is said to be highpriest along with Zadok. The i the priests were divided into 24 most probable solution is, that classes, the 8th class was called both father and son each bore the from him the class of Abia. 1 two names Abimelech and Abia- Chr. 24:10. Luke 1:5. thar; as was not at all unusual ABILENE, the name of a dis. among the Jews. (See one ex- trict of country on the eastern de. ample under ABIGAIL.) In this clivity of Antilibanus, from twelve way, also, we may remove the to twenty miles N. W. of Damasdifficulty arising from Mark 2:26, cus, towards Heliopolis, or Baalwhere Abiathar is said to have beck; so called from the city ABIgiven David the shew bread, in LA, and also called Abilene of Lyallusion to 1 Sam. 21:1, &c.where sanias, to distinguish it from others. it is Ahimelech.

This territory had formerly been ABIB, the first month of the governed as a tetrarchate by a ecclesiastical year of the He- certain Lysanias, the son of Ptolehrews; afterwards called Nisan. my and grandson of Mennæus : It answered to our March, or to afterwards it fell to Herod the part of March and April. Abib Great. At Herod's death, a part signifies green ears of grain, or of the territory was given to fresh fruits. It was so named, Philip; but the greater part, with because corn, particularly barley, the city Abila, seems then, or was in ear at that time.

shortly afterwards, to have been ABIGAIL, formerly the wife bestowed on another Lysanias. of Nabal of Carmel, and after- Luke 3:1. He is supposed to wards of David. Upon receiving have been a descendant of the information of Nabal's ingratitude former Lysanias. to the king, 1 Sam. 25:14, &c. I. ABIMELECH, king of Geshe loaded several asses with rar of the Philistines, who took provisions, and, attended by Sarah into his harem; but being some of her domestics, went out warned of God in a dream, he to meet David. Her manners restored her to Abraham, and and conversation gained for her gave him 1000 pieces of silver as his esteem, and, as soon as the covering of the eyes” for days of mourning for Nabal's Sarah, i. e. as an atoning present, death, which happened soon af- and to be a testimony of her interwards, were over, he made nocence in the eyes of all. Gen. her his wife. The issue of the marriage was, as some critics II. ABIMELECH, another suppose, two sons, Chiliab and king of Gerar, probably son of Daniel, 2 Sam. 3:3. 1 Chr. the former,and contemporary with 3:1; but it is most probable that Isaac. He rebuked Isaac for these names were borne by one dissimulation in regard to Reperson.

and afterwards made a I. ABIJAH, called also ABI- || league with him at Beersheba JAM, was the son of Rehoboam, Gen. 26:6-31. and second king of Judah. He III. ABIMELECH, son of succeeded his father B. C. 954, || Gideon, by a concubine, made and reigned only three years. himself king of Shechem after his 1 K. 14:1, &c. 2 Chr. c. 13 father's death, and slew bis fa.

II. ABIJAH, or Abia, a priest | ther's seventy sons on one stone, of the posterity of Aaron, and only Jotham, the youngest, being founder of a family. When all II left. Jotham reproached the She


c. 20.


chemites for their conduct in his | according to the convenience of celebrated fable of the trees. water and pasturage, and jour. Three years afterwards, they rose neying sometimes for the same against Abimelech; hé defeated reason as far as Egypt. His them, and destroyed their city, || probity and his confidence in God but as he was attacking Thebez, were so conspicuous, that God a woman threw down a piece of prospered him greatly, and proma mill-stone on his head, which ised him a seed “like the sand so injured him, that he called to on the sea-shore," which should his armor-bearer to slay him. inhabit the land of Canaan. Judg. c. 9.

Hence this was called the ABNER, the son of Ner, Saul's promised land.” Abraham's uncle, and the general of his faith and piety were so great, armies. 1 Sam. 14:51. For seven that when God directed him to years after Saul's death, he sup- offer his son Isaac in sacrifice, ported Ishbosheth; but, being ill he did not hesitate to obey ; used by him, he went over to though the Lord interfered to preDavid. He was, however, treach- vent the accomplishment. God erously slain by Joab, either to entered into covenant with him revenge the death of Asahel, in respect to the pious of his posJoab's brother, whom Abner had terity, and hence he is called the formerly killed, or more probably “ father of the faithful," and they from jealousy. David composed are called the “ seed of Abraan elegy on his death. 2 Sam. ham.” Rom. 4:16. Gal. 3:7. This 2:8.-3:39.

history, which is full of beautiful ABOMINATION OF DES- examples of trust in God and resOLATION, foretold by Daniel, ignation to his holy will, is given 9:27, denotes, probably, the

at length in Genesis 11:27.image of Jupiter, erected in the 25:10. His character and hospitemple of Jerusalem by coni- tality were those of a genuine orimand of Antiochus Epiphanes. ental patriarch or sheikh. “Abra2 Mac. 6:2. 1 Mac. 6:7. But by ham, says Dr. Richardson, the Abomination of Desolation “ was a Bedouin, i. e. an Araspoken of by our Lord, Matt.bian nomade; and I never saw 24:15. Mark 13:14, and foretold a fine, venerable looking sheikh as about to be seen at Jerusalem, busied among his focks and during the last siege of that city herds, that it did not remind me by Romans under Titus, is of the patriarch himself.” probably meant the Roman army, Abraham's Bosom. In Luke whose standards had the images 16:22, Lazarus is said to have of their gods and emperors upon been carried to Abraham's bothem, and were lodged in the tem- som,

i. e. to a state of bliss in ple when that and the city were paradise. This is often repretaken. See ARMOR.

sented by a feast, by sitting down ABRAM, afterwards called to a banquet, &c. Matt. 8:11. ABRAHAM, the great progen- Luke 13:29; and to be or lie on itor of the Jewish nation. He one's bosom refers to the oriental was born in Mesopotamia, and mode of reclining at table. So, migrated as a nomade, or wan- at supper, John Jeaned on Jesus' dering shepherd, into Palestine, bosom. John 13:23. See EATwhere he continued to dwell, re- ING, and LAZARUS II. moving from place to place, ABSALOM, son of David by

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