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BEFORE THE SANHEDRIM-CHAP. IX.
17 But when the time of the promise drew nigh, which Jerusalem. od, 4746, God had sworn to Abraham, the people grew and multialgar Era, plied in Egypt,
3 or 34.
18 Till another king arose, which knew not Joseph.
19 The same dealt subtilly with our kindred, and evil entreated our fathers, so that they cast out their young children, to the end they might not live.
20 In which time Moses was born, and was exceeding fair, and nourished up in his father's house three months: 21 And when he was cast out, Pharaoh's daughter took him up, and nourished him for her own son.
22 And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds.
23 And when he was full forty years old, it came into his heart to visit his brethren the children of Israel.
24 And seeing one of them suffer wrong, he defended him, and avenged him that was oppressed, and smote the Egyptian :
25 For he supposed his brethren would have understood how that God by his hand would deliver them: but they understood not.
26 And the next day he shewed himself unto them as they strove, and would have set them at one again, saying, Sirs, ye are brethren; why do ye wrong one to another?
27 But he that did his neighbour wrong thrust him away, saying, Who made thee a ruler and a judge over
28 Wilt thou kill me, as thou didst the Egyptian yesterday?
apyvpiov, which he (Jacob) had bought for a sum of money of
or 4747. Vulgar Era, 33 or 34.
29 Then fled Moses at this saying; and was a stranger Jerusalem. in the land of Madian, where he begat two sons.
30 And when forty years were expired, there appeared to him in the wilderness of Mount Sina an angel of the Lord, in a flame of fire in a bush.
31 When Moses saw it, he wondered at the sight: and as he drew near to behold it, the voice of the Lord came unto him,
32 Saying, I am the God of thy fathers, the God of
33 Then said the Lord to him, Put off thy shoes from
34 I have seen, I have seen the affliction of my people which is in Egypt, and I have heard their groaning, and am come down to deliver m. the And now come, I will send thee into Egypt.
35 This Moses, whom they refused, saying, Who made thee a ruler and a judge? the same did God send to be a ruler and a deliverer, by the hand of the angel which appeared to him in the bush.
36 He brought them out, after that he had shewn wonders and signs in the land of Egypt, and in the Red Sea, and in the wilderness forty years.
37 This is that Moses which said unto the children of Israel, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear.
38 This is he that was in the church in the wilderness, with the angel which spake to him in the Mount Sina, and with our fathers; who received the lively oracles to give
39 To whom our fathers would not obey, but thrust him from them, and in their hands turned back again into Egypt,
40 Saying unto Aaron, Make us gods to go before us: for as for this Moses which brought us out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what has become of him.
41 And they made a calf in those days, and offered sacrifice unto the idol, and rejoiced in the works of their own hands.
42 Then God turned, and gave them up to worship the host of heaven: as it is written in the book of the prophets, O ye house of Israel, have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices by the space of forty years in the wilderness?
43 Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to
BEFORE THE SANHEDRIM-CHAP. IX.
Julian Pe- worship them": and I will carry you away beyond Ba- Jerusalem.
ned, 4746, Valgar Æra, 33 or 34.
37 St. Stephen here alludes to a passage in the book of Amos, chap. v. 26. which is rendered with some variation in the Septuagint. The words of the original in our Hebrew Bibles are
הזבחים ומנחה הגשתם לי במדבר ארבעים שני בית ישראל: ונשאתם את סכות מלככם ואת כיון צלמיכם כוכב אלהיכם אשר עשיתם לכם:
They are thus translated-Have ye offered unto me sacrifices, and offerings in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel? 26 But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch, and Chiun your images, the star of your God, which ye made for yourselves.
By the Septuagint—Μὴ σφάγια καὶ θυσιάς προσηνέγκατέ μοι οἶκος Ισραὴλ τεσσαράκοντα ἔτη ἐν τῇ ἐρήμω ; καὶ ἀναλάβετε τὴν σκηνὴν τῇ Μολὸχ, καὶ τὸ ἄτρον τῷ θεῷ ὑμων ̔Ραιφᾶν, τῆς τύπος αὐτῶν, οἷς ἐποιήσατε ἑαυτοῖς.
The quotation in the Acts is evidently from the Septuagint,
Vitringa (a) would account for the difference between the
אשר עשיתם לכם
Ρεμφὰν, τὲς τύπες,
זגשאתם את סכות מלככם
Καὶ ἀνελάβετε τὴν σκηνὴν τοῦ μολὸχ
Οὓς ἐποιήσατε προσκυνεῖν αὐτοῖς Καὶ τὸ ἄκρον τοῦ Θεῷ ἡμῶν.
Pfeiffer (b) has discussed the subject, and collected from vari-
Grotius would read Remphan, and Petit Rephan; both consider it as a name of Saturn.
Pfeiffer quotes also Kircher, T. 1. Edip. Egypt. Synt. 4. c. 22. p. 387. who considers that 'Papav was the Coptic name of Saturn.
Julian Pe- 44 Our fathers had the tabernacle of witness in the Jerusalem. riod, 4746, wilderness, as he had appointed, speaking unto Moses,
33 or 3.
Dr. Hales proposes the following translation:
Did ye offer unto me (alone) sacrifices and oblations, pure and undivided in the wilderness,
For forty years, O house of Israel? (Nay verily)
But ye (then) carried in procession the shrine of (the Sun),
Your images, which ye made for yourselves to worship, and
Wherefore I will carry you away beyond Damascus, (nay even) beyond Babylon.-Amos v. 21-27. Acts vii. 42, 43.
Dr. Hales (c) endeavours to prove that Chiun was the dogstar; and that the Hebrew words ɔ, ɔ, ought to be read as one compound word, corresponding with the Greek Aspwas kuwv, or Aspокvvoc, the dog-star: whence he supposes that the Greek kvwv is derived from "Chiun." He then wishes to shew that Chiun and Remphan, or Raiphan, or Rephan, were the
Archbishop Newcome (d) thinks, that the order of the words in the Septuagint is preferable to that in the Hebrew. Their collocation in the Hebrew, he observes, is unnatural, and points out a mistake in the copies. He would render the passage -Nay, but ye bare the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun, your images, the star of your God, which ye made to yourselves. Newcome mentions a MS. 612, which places the words thus: Chiun, your god, the star [of] your images. He interprets the word Chiun, after Spencer (e), as a name of Saturn, and remarks the reading of Ρεμφαν in ὁ and of Ρεμφεν, Ραῖφαν, Ραφαν, Ρεφφαν, Ρέφα, Acts vii. 43. where the Mss. vary, may be accounted for two ways; r may have been read
, there being a similarity in the two initial letters: or Rephan, the Egyptian name for Saturn, may have been used by translators who lived in Egypt, as an equivalent term to Chiun.
Selden supposes this god Chiun might have been represented as a star with certain symbols of distinction (f). Lightfoot (g) has also a long criticism upon this word. Before his time the word Paipãy had been generally interpreted as if derived from the Hebrew 97, a giant. Lightfoot would rather derive it from 7 or 9, weak and weakness; after giving his reasons for so doing, (see Lightfoot, vol. viii. p. 434.) he proceeds, by saying, be it therefore that Moloch is the sun, or Remphan and Chiun should be Saturn, we read of the introduction of Moloch into the land of Israel, but of Chiyun not at all, only in the prophet Amos, and here in the mention of Remphan. When I read that in Kings xii. 30. "That all the people went to worship the calf in Dan;" and observe farther, that Dan was called Panias, I begin to think that àv, Phan, in Paipav, Rephan, and 'Pɛupav, Remphan, may have some relation with that name; and that Dan is mentioned rather than Bethel, because the idolatry, or calf of that place, continued longer than that of Bethel. Mr. Faber (h), the last author who has treated on these subjects, states, we are told by Aben Ezra, that Saturn or Cronos was styled by the Arabs and Persians Chivan; which is palpably the same as the Chiun of Amos. But Chiun, or Chivan, seems to be only the Buddhic title Saca, or Sacya, in a more simple shape: for since the Chinese distin. guish their god Po, or Buddha, by the name of Che-Kya, or the Great Kya, writing the Indian appellation Sacya in two words,
BEFORE THE SANHEDRIM-CHAP. IX.
riod, 4746, or 4747. Vulgar Æra, 33 or 34.
that he should make it according to the fashion that he had Jerusalem
instead of one: it is probable that Sacya is a compound term,
Such are the various hypotheses of these learned men to re-
Mr. Faber has endeavoured to prove that the star of Rem-