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23 To the general assembly and church of the first- Italy. riod, 4775. born, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge Vulgar Æra, 62. of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
§ 37. HEB. xii. 25, to the end.
The Apostle, from the superior Excellence of the Gospel
25 See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if
26 Whose voice then shook the earth: but now he
and most holy place, to signify the presence of angels. There
1 Some commentators suppose that this passage refers to the
AN INEXPIABLE CRIME-CHAP. XV.
Julian Pe- 27 And this word, Yet once more, signifieth the re- Italy,
28 Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be
§ 38. HEB. Xiii. 1-6.
The Apostle exhorts the Hebrews to brotherly Love, to acts
1 Let brotherly love continue.
2 Be not forgetful to entertain strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares.
3 Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them; and them which suffer adversity, as being yourselves also in the body.
4 Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.
5 Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.
6 So that we may boldly say, The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto me.
§ 39. HEB. xiii. 7-16.
The Apostle, further to convince them that the Promises of
probability described by the prophets as the heavens, because
Julian Period, 4775. Vulgar Æra, 62.
port they received at the End of their Lives, when they suf- Italy.
7 Remember them which have the rule over you, who
8 Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and to-day, and for
9 Be not carried about with divers and strange doctrines for it is a good thing that the heart be established with grace; not with meats, which have not profited them that have been occupied therein.
10 We have an altar, whereof they have no right to eat which serve the tabernacle.
11 For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp.
12 Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate.
13 Let us go forth therefore unto him without the camp, bearing his reproach:
14 For here have we no continuing city, but we seek
one to come.
15 By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to his name.
16 But to do good, and to communicate, forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.
Julian Period, 4775.
OBEDIENT TO THEIR TEACHERS AND BISHOPS.
$ 40. HEB. xiii. 17-21.
Vulgar Era, The Apostle desires them to obey their lawful Pastors and Teachers, who are appointed to direct and govern them in spiritual Things, and to give an Account of their Conduct to God-He desires their Prayers also for himself, that he may be restored to them the sooner— That though they may not approve his Doctrines, he has delivered them faithfully, ever anxious to fulfil the Duties of his Apostleship-He solemnly prays that God, who brought back Jesus Christ from the Dead, through the Blood of his unchangeable Covenant, may make them perfect in every good Work, through the Influences of the Holy Spirit, given to them by Jesus Christ, to whom the Glory of Man's Salvation is to be for ever ascribed.
17 Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account: that they may do it with joy, and not with grief for that is unprofitable for
18 Pray for us: for we trust we have a good conscience, in all things willing to live honestly.
19 But I beseech you the rather to do this, that I may be restored to you the sooner.
20 Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,
21 Make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is well pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
§ 41. HEB. xiii. 22, to the end.
The Apostle, in conclusion, beseeches the Hebrews not to be
22 And I beseech you, brethren, suffer the word of
23 Know ye that our brother Timothy is set at liberty; with whom, if he come shortly, I will see you.
24 Salute all them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you.
25 Grace be with you all. Amen.
Vulgar Era, After his Liberation, St. Paul visits Italy, Spain, Britain, Britain.
12 and the West 12.
12 We cannot be certain what were the travels of St. Paul between his first and second imprisonments at Rome. The probable accounts must be collected from the remaining testimony of the Second Epistle to Timothy, and the desire he had expressed in his Epistles written before his liberation.
Bishop Pearson, with many very eminent and learned theologians, have been of opinion, that when he left Italy he first proceeded to Spain, and the West. Bishop Stillingfleet, and since his time the learned Bishop Burgess, in our own day, have strenuously defended this opinion.
In his Epistle to the Romans (chap. xv. 24.) be had long before expressed his determination to go into Spain-" Whensoever I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you. For I trust to see you in my journey, and to be brought on my way thitherward by you, if first I be somewhat filled with your company."
There appears to be sufficient traditional evidence to satisfy us that the apostle eventually fulfilled his determination.
The testimonies of the first six centuries, either expressly record St. Paul's journey to the West and to Britain, or offer such evidence of the propagation of Christianity in Spain and Britain, as coincides with these testimonies.
1. The first and most important is the testimony of Clemens Romanus, "the intimate friend and fellow-labourer of St. Paul." He says, that St. Paul, in preaching the Gospel, went to the utmost bounds of the West, ἔπι τὸ τερμα τῆς δυσεῶς. This is not a rhetorical expression, as Dr. Hale supposes, but the usual designation of Britain. Catullus calls Britain, ultima Britannia, and ultima occidentis insula. The West included Spain, Gaul, and Britain. Theodoret speaks of the inhabitants of Spain, Gaul, and Britain, as dwelling in the utmost bounds of the West, τας της έσπερας εσχατιας. The connection between Britain and the West, will be seen in other passages quoted by Bishop Stillingfleet (a); and in the following of Nicephorus(b)—ñρòç ¿oñεριον ωκεανόν εισβαλων και τας Βρεταννικας νήσους ευαγγελισαMEVOC. The utmost bounds of the West, then, is not rhetorical language in itself, for it is a common appellation of Britain; nor as applied to St. Paul, for it was said of others of the apos
2. In the second century (A.D. 176,) Irenæus speaks of Christianity as propagated to the utmost bounds of the earth, iwc TEOATWV TNS YNS, by the apostles and their disciples; and particularly specifies the churches planted (εν ταις ̔Ιβεριαις, and ἑν KEλros) in Spain, and the Celtic nations (c). By the Kɛλro were meant the people of Germany, Gaul, and Britain (d).
3. At the end of the second and the beginning of the third century (A.D. 193-220,) Tertullian mentions, among the Christian converts, Hispaniarum omnes termini, et Galliarum diverversæ nationes et Britannorum inaccessa Romanis loca, Christo vero subdita (e). Though Irenæus and Tertullian, in their testimonies, do not expressly mention St. Paul, yet the conversion of Britain to Christianity is recorded as the work of the apostles and their disciples. It is most interesting to find such wri. ters speaking of their proximity to the origin of the Christian Church, and consequently of the perfect competency of their