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thinking of what he had been himself. I must not make my story too long by relating their conversation, it is sufficient to say that they could not come to any agreement, and the battle of Zama took place, in which, although Hannibal is said to have shown more skill than in any of his former exploits, he was totally defeated; and after doing all that a great general and good soldier could do, he fled to Admetum. A peace followed, by the Carthaginians submitting to the terms required by the Romans. They were much harder than before; they were to pay 10,000 talents in fifty years, to give up all their ships and elephants, to resign Spain and all the islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and not to make war in Africa without the consent of the Romans. Thus ended the second Punic War, which had lasted seventeen years. Scipio returned in triumph to Rome, and was named Africanus.-We are now to behold a change in the Roman character which you will grieve for. By the conquest of so many countries, great riches and many slaves had been brought into Rome; they acquired a taste for pleasures which they had not known before. Their wealth purchased those articles of luxury or necessity, which formerly they had either not



wished for or made for themselves, and their slaves cultivated those fields which were formerly tilled by a Cincinnatus and a Fabricius. Their love of their country and the public good changed into a love of themselves and a selfish vanity. In the mean time they continued the war with Philip of Macedon, who was obliged to buy a peace, when the Romans showed their generosity by restoring freedom to the Grecian states. During this time, the Gauls, Ligurians, and Spaniards were severally defeated. A war was entered into against Antiochus, King of Syria, under several pretences, one of which was, that he had received and protected their old enemy, Hannibal. Antiochus was a bold, powerful, and ambitious prince ; he met Scipio-"

“ Protected Hannibal, mamma!" interrupted Anne, “what protection could he want? his own country ought to have taken care of him after what he had done for her.”

It ought so, but he met with an ungrateful return from the Carthaginians. He had been obliged to leave his country to avoid being given up to the Romans. Scipio, as I said, met Antiochus, near Magnesia; the latter was defeated, and glad to make peace with the Romans, by agreeing to give up all his possessions in Eu


rope, and in Asia on the other side of Mount Taurus, and to deliver up Hannibal. Lucius Scipio conducted this war, with the assistance of his brother, and received the surname of Asiaticus."

“ And what became of Hannibal, mamma?”

“That old general was pursued by the Romans with the most inveterate hatred. He had taken shelter with Prusias, King of Bithynia, but his retreat being discovered, Æmilius was sent to demand him. Prusias, fearful of offending the Romans, prepared to obey ; upon which, Hannibal, finding no place of safety left, took poison, which he always carried about him, saying, that it was time to relieve the Romans from their terrors. There was a time,' he continued, when the Romans guarded an enemy from poison; now they seek the life of a banished old man, and try to make a prince break the laws of hospitality.' So ended the life of Hannibal.”

“Well might Hannibal say, the Romans were changed, mamma, they were indeed; but Scipio, how did he get on ?"

“ He was treated but little better by his countrymen than Hannibal had been. The people brought frivolous charges against him, but



withdrew them when he reminded them that the day of his trial was the anniversary of his victory at Zama. The charges being repeated, Scipio left Rome in disgust. He lived three years longer in retirement at Linturnum, in Campania, and when he died, ordered the following epitaph to be placed on his tomb :— Ungrateful countrymen! even my bones shall not rest among you.' A second Macedonian war followed, and the king of that country, as well as the King of the Illyrians, were both led in triumph before the Roman generals. Carthage having in the last fifty years again grown rich, and in some measure recovered its former strength, once more excited the jealousy of the Romans. Cato, who had acquired the surname of the Cen


“Was he apt to find fault, mamma?”

“ He was anxious to discover and correct faults, my love, not only in others but in himself. Strictly attached to Roman discipline, he forgot the changes which had taken place in his country, or only remembered them to rail against them. He was devoted to his country, and thought he was serving it in bringing about the destruction of Carthage, which rivalled it in power. In this opinion he was joined by

would grow

many senators, and vainly opposed by Scipio Nasica, who wisely considered, that Rome, once become superior to all other cities in the world in power,

careless and idle. The entire and total destruction of Carthage was resolved upon, and a pretence for war was soon discovered in the Carthaginians having defended themselves against Masinissa, a friend of the Romans, who had made incursions into their country. This the Romans chose to consider as breaking the treaty."

“ How very unjust, mamma ; defending themselves was not making war upon, or attacking ; but pray go on.”

“War was accordingly declared, but the Carthaginians, not having made preparations for defending themselves, humbly offered satisfaction. Three hundred hostages were demanded by the Romans, and, contrary to their wishes, they were sent, with an entreaty to know what more was desired. The Romans scarcely knew what should be demanded, but required the Carthaginians to deliver up their arms. This they agreed to; but the next command roused even their poor humble spirits to resistance and exertion ; they were ordered to leave their city, that it might be levelled with the ground, the

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