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rious orders and acts of Providence.
This becomes a solid foundation of happiness in God; for if those acts of his Providence, which are most adverse to all our temporal felicity, subversive of our favourite calculations, and embittering to all our enjoyments, are so mitigated in their afflictive tendencies by the sense of his mercy, that we cannot deny our acquiescence, what will be our adoring admiration of those heavenly displays of his love which no cloud shall obscure? If our spirits are made to accord with what he is, and with what he does in a state which has periods when he seems to hide his face, and to draw the darkness of indignation around his countenance; how much more shall we harmonize with his divine exhibitions when transported to these scenes, where no jarring sound shall ever disturb the echo of benediction, and no shade of displeasure ever vary his complacent smile? What is consent now, will be admiration then; what is submission now, will be exultation then; what is approbation now, will be adoration then; what is a partial view now, will then be perfect knowledge. Let us now yield ourselves to God as those who are alive from the dead, and rejoice in the God of our salvation.
we find in the apostle John. It is certainly clear, that at first view, the expressions appear to be without any limitation; and that they were intended to be so, is confirmed by the 10th verse, which mentions the world as part of the all things which were made. It is said in the same way, Gen. ii. 4, "God saw all things that he had made." Heb. i. 2, Christ is represented as "Upholding all things;" and again, "For thou hast created all things," Rev. iv: 11. The word arra is used by the Greeks to express all things in the most general meaning of the phrase. And since the connexion of the words certainly does not require a Tarra, in our text, to be understood metaphorically; it must be understood literally; and therefore signifies all created things, visible and invisible.
Second. Who created them? "All things were made by him." That him here relates to the Aoyo mentioned in the 1st verse, is not disputed, for there is no other antecedent. That Jesus Christ is the person intended by him, is almost universally acknowledged. This point is not contested.
But to our interpretation of the whole passage, it is objected
First, That Christ is the independent cause of all things could not be intended, for the creation of them "is uniformily and invariably ascribed to the Father both in the Old and New Testaments."
Answer. This is not true; for we read, 1st Cor. viii. 6, "One Lord Jesus Christ by whom are all things." Rev. iv. 11. "Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honour, and power, for thou hast created all things ;" and Heb. i. 8, Thou Lord in the beginning hast laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of thine hands." The apostle, Coloss. i. 12, speaks of "Giving thanks unto the Father, -who hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son,
the first-born of every creature. 16th verse. "For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, principalities or powers: all things were created by him and for him." Is creation then "uniformly and invariably ascribed to the Father?"
The second objection is, That the verb rivoμat is never used in the sense of create.
The LXX however render you as equivalent in signifiIcation to the Hebrew verb . That signifies to bring into existence,' 'to form,' 'to create,' needs no proof, except to read the first verse in Genesis. In Psalms, in Isaiah, in Genesis, is translated by youeat, Ps. cxlviii, 5; Isaiah xlviii, 9; Genesis ii, 4. So Gen. i. 3, 4 Γενηθήτω φως και φως sysvilo." Who can entertain a doubt that the creation of light is here intended?
But let us examine its use in the New Testament. The apostle James iii. 9, speaks of " which (yovoras) are made after the similitude of God." Heb. xi. 3, "Things which were seen were not (ysyovsvas) made of things which do appear." So John, "And the world (eyevero) was made by him.” Arguments then drawn from the use of the word you, are destitute of all support from philology.
A third objection to our interpretation is, "that creation could not be ascribed to Christ as the efficient cause." In the expression бье αυτού, it is said, the preposition dia is used, almost invariably, to express merely the relation of an instrumental cause, and not the act of an efficient one.
Here again is another mistake, for Paul, speaking of God the Father, says, Hebrews ii. 10. di avrov "by whom are all things," and again, 1st Corinthians i. 9, "God is faithful (dia avtov) by whom ye are called," and surely HE cannot be the instrumental
Other instances might be The nature of the case too requires that such should be the interpretation here. After all, who can attach so much importance to the mere use of a preposition, as to prescribe rules of faith from it; especially in the New Testament, where so many departures from Greek usage are found?
But grant the rule adopted by our antagonists, and we are furnished with an incontrovertible argument in favour of the divinity of Christ. They affirm that designates the efficient and dia the instrumental cause. Acts iv. 16, "for a notable miracle hath been done (dia avtav) by them;" so xv. 12, "miracles and wonders God wrought among the Gentiles (dia AUTY) by them." All admit the apostles to be instruments, and the da according to the rule of criticism adopted, is used. But when Christ is mentioned as working miracles, &c. the ire which designates the efficient, is used. Luke v 15, Were healed of their infirmities (no autov) by him;" and xxiii. 8, "and he (Herod) hoped to have seen some miracle done (ño avrov) by him." See other instances in Luke.
We may gather from our inquiries
1. That all things means the material universe, the heaven, the earth, and all "that is therein." 2.
That the Aoyos, the incarnate Word, Jesus Christ, is the Creator of all things. Creator of all things. That omnipotent power cannot be delegated, is admitted by all. That there can be but one Omnipotent Being, is admitted by all. That to create requires omnipotent power, which belongs only to God, is admitted by all. That Christ created all things has been proved. Christ then is possessed of omnipotence. He is the mighty God. Then are we bound to worship him as such, and not rob him of his glory.
EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM MRS. JUDSON TO HER FRIEND IN THIS COUNTRY.
Rangoon, Feb. 10, 1818.
My dear Mrs. C.
It is now four long years and a half, since we took up our residence in this spiritually benighted land, and to this day do we continue to offer our thanks to God, for having brought, and continued us bere. To this day can we testify that God is good, that he is a faithful covenant-keeping God, who is worthy of the entire trust and confidence of all his creatures. Never for a moment has he left us to feel that our views of the practicability of missions, on our first setting out, were visionary, consequently we have been preserved from those distressing, agonizing feelings resulting from regret and disappointment in a darling enterprise. On the contrary, we feel that missions to the heathen are practicable, and not only so, but the very blood of heathen souls will be required at the hand of those christians, who do not make every possible exertion to send the gospel among them. This is all that is required of the christian world. To give success, is another thing from using the means. God will not call us to an account for not converting the heathen. This, this is the work he reserves for himself. But he will call us to an account for not using the means, for this part of his work he has given his creatures to perform. Neither have we any reason to be discouraged, because he has not given efficacy to the first communications of divine truth which we have made. It would be almost a miracle for
these Birmans to throw away a system of religion which they have been accustomed to consider sacred from time immemorial, on the very first intimations of its being false, or on the first intelligence that there was another and a better. They must have time to examine, to read our sacred writings, and to see the effect our religion produces on its professors, before they will (humanly speaking) feel the least inclination to embrace the humbling doctrines of the gospel. They do not feel themselves in such a miserable perishing condition, as we view them, consequently they do not feel the necessity of laying hold on the hope set before them. We hope our friends and patrons will not be discouraged because no one of those poor Birmans who have heard the gospel has embraced it, but continue to strengthen and encourage us by their prayers and communications, and in time we doubt not they, with us, will reap if they faint not.
We are anxiously looking for the arrival of the missionaries, who, we hope, have long since left America. God grant that they may prove true missionaries of the cross, prepared and willing to suffer, whatever may await them here. We consider the circumstance of other missionaries having their hearts turned toward the Birman empire, as an indication of the will of God to strengthen and establish this mission, and a prelude of his more merciful intentions to turn the Birmans from idolatry to serve
the living God. I anticipate is very kind, affords me every much happiness in once more assistance in his power, and will, enjoying the society of "sister I think, prove a good missionary. spirits," in once more uniting I rejoice, my dear sister, in your with female friends in social domestic happiness, and pray your prayer. And O may it not be little children may be spared and long before our number will be made blessings to you. Pray increased by the addition of Bir- much for me, my dear Mrs. C. man sisters, chosen from the ranks O pray that I may have much of idolatry to enlist under the personal religion, live near to banner of the Prince of peace. God, and be faithful unto death. I have a meeting of females con- I have many trials of a spiritual sisting of between twenty and nature. O could you see my thirty. Sometimes I feel as if I heart, my little devotedness to could not leave them, until they that dear Redeemer, who has had embraced the Saviour of given his life for sinners, you sinners. Some of them really would feel that I was very unlisten with attention and ask per- worthy of the high privilege of tinent questions, but I dare not living among the heathen. hope that any lasting impressions are made on their minds. of them can read, consequently they retain but a short time what they hear. I have desired some of them to learn to read, but they say they are too old, they cannot learn. Mr. Judson is absent, or be would write to Mr. C. He left us six weeks ago for Chittagong, expecting to be absent three months. He was very anxious to see the christian Mugs there, and if possible bring one or two round with him, to instruct others, as they speak the Birman language. But the awful intelligence we have received since Mr. Judson's departure, respecting the instructer of these Mugs, forbids us to hope much from their piety. Their in
structer has proved a murderer, and must (if not already) be executed. The object of his wrath was the missionary De Brun, whose name you no doubt have seen in the Circular letters or Periodical Accounts. We are extremely anxious to have some account from Mr. Judson. You will readily imagine my situation is very lonely in his absence. Nothing but a sense of duty could have induced me to consent to his departure. Mr. Hough
1 send you a Birman catechism. It is the first thing I ever wrote in the Birman language. I designed it only for the children in our enclosures, but it has since been printed and put in circulation. I do not expect you will be able to read it, but it may be a curiosity if you have never seen the Birman manner of writing. I have since written a translation of the book of Jonah, and part of Daniel, not because I consider these books of any more importance than other parts of the scripture, but because they were easier to translate. My paper is filled, therefore I must conclude with respectful compliments to Mr. C.
EXTRACTS FROM MRS. C.'S JOURNAL,
Attended divine service below this morning as usual. In the afternoon, Mr. C. delivered a discourse on deck from Heb. ii. 3. "How shall we escape, if we ne glect so great salvation?" There
are some favorable appearances among the sailors. Two of them are considerably affected with a sense of eternal things. We are afraid to put much dependance on these appearances, but we fendly hope that they will not prove like the "morning cloud, and early dew."
I suppose that mamma, and my dear brothers and sisters are now sitting in the sanctuary of God. What a rich privilege do they enjoy! While some are bathing in the Ganges, to cleanse their souls from sin, and bowing the knee to senseless idols, Jesus is presented to your view as the only atoning sacrifice for the iniquities of men. May you this day find his worship to be pleasant, and have reason to say, that "a day spent in his courts is better than a thousand." How animating to my soul would it be, to behold a temple dedicated to the service of the Most High, and to unite with the saints in solemn prayer and praise ! I am often ready with the Psalmist to exclaim, "How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of Hosts! My soul longeth, yea, even fainteth, for the courts of the Lord." But this is not the language of discontent. No, dear mamma, I am happy in my present situation. Nor would I exchange it for the palace of a king. If I know the greatest desire of my heart, it is that I may do the will of my heavenly Father, and glorify him on earth. I choose" rather to suffer afflictions with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season."
I have had to day, some sweet peace of mind, while contemplating the perfections of God. How animating the idea that he is omnipresent! He is at the same moment with my dear friends in America, and with me upon the ocean. And I trust that he will watch over me in the sultry climes
of Burmah. The world is indeed a bubble. Sublunary objects cannot satisfy the soul. All things below are fading away. But God is unchangeable. If we possess that religion which he alone can afford, it will be to us a never failing portion. It will support and solace us, 'amidst the afflictions of life, and prepare us for eternal felicity.
Brother W. delivered a discourse this afternoon from Acts xvi. 30. "Sirs, what must I do to be saved?" This, I trust, is the anxious inquiry of some on board. Two or three of the sailors are much impressed with a sense of divine realities. All are remarkably sober, and attentive to the preached word. I firmly believe, that the Lord is about to display his power here, in the conversion of poor sinners.
Feb. 15. Rejoice with me, dear mamma, in the goodness of the Lord, and let us exalt his name together. Salvation has, as I humbly trust, come to this ship. One of the sailors, of whom I wrote the other day, is now a hopeful convert! Mr. C. had some interesting conversation with him this evening. He does not himself believe that he is a christian. But from his appearance and conversation Mr. C. feels satisfied that a gracious change has been wrought in his heart. Indeed the alteration in him is so visible that it is observed by all his companions. They say that he is a different man from what he was once. He acknowledged to Mr. C. that he had been a great sinner: had been much addicted to profaneness, and had never thought any thing about Christ. But now,"
said he," I love Christ he is my all. I think of him, and love him every minute. I cannot bear the idea of his leaving me."
Feb. 21. It is with unusual pleasure that I take my pen to record the glorious events