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Morn. H. M. 4 41 5 11 5 42 6 17 6 59 7 56
7 Su. 8
1 39 2 16 2 54 3 30 4 5 4 42 5 21 6 3 6 56 7 50
1 30 2 17 2 59 3 37 4 9
4 atter. New Moon, Feb. 5. 39
ll morn. First Quarter,
4 morn. Full Moon,
1 morn. Last Quarter, 28 17
Jan. 27. Duke of Sussex born.
30. King Charles I. martyrdom.
14. Old Candlemas.
We are much obliged by the hints lately received from different quarters, with a view to the Improvement of our Register. Our Military and Naval readers shall, in future, find these lists regularly ; they were only postponed from a wish to devote as much as possible of our Pages to matter altogether Original, We shall also attend to the wishes expressed in Letters from London, Edinburgh, and Fife, in regard to other Divisions of the same Department. But we have some reason to doubt if it will be in our power fully to comply with the desire of our London Correspondent, within the bounds to which the Tables he alludes to must necessarily be confined.
Edinburgh, January 20, 1818.
The Correspondents of the EDINBURGH MAGAZINE AND LITERARY MISCELLANY are respectfully requested to transmit their Communications for the Fditors to ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE and Company, Edinburgh, or LongMAN and COMPANY, London, to whom also orders for the Work should be particularly addressed.
Printed by George Ramsay & Co.
AFFAIRS OF SPANISH AMERICA. and opening, on a liberal footing, these
extensive countries to the commerce The commotions by which Europe and manufactures of Europe. Contemhas been shaken for nearly the last plating the advantages which must thirty years, have excited such deep inevitably result from the indepenand universal interest, that, during dence of the Spanish colonies, the these eventful times, the inhabitants of struggle in which they are now enthis agitated spot have neither had gaged appears to excite the most leisure nor inclination to inquire mi- lively sympathy in this country, and nutely into the affairs of other coun- since, by the re-establishment of peace tries, their attention having been in Europe, we have leisure for inwholly absorbed by revolutions which quiry and speculation, there prevails more immediately affected their own a general desire for information rehappiness and peace. It has happen- garding these extensive regions, now ed, however, by a singular coinci- unhappily the scene of intestine dence, that, at the time when the re- commotions. For the purpose of gravolutionary spirit appears to have tifying this laudable spirit of curiosispent its force in Europe, a similar ty, we shall briefly submit to our readspirit of resistance to established autho- ers a geographical sketch of those rity should have been kindled through- colonies, with such notices of their out the Spanish provinces of America, principal towns, rivers, and most imand that the scene of commotion portant products, as will enable them should thus have been in a manner to appreciate the different military only shifted from the Old to the statements which are, from time to New World. The changes which time, circulated in the journals of the have taken place in the remote de- day, and from the positions of the pendencies of Spain, will unquestion- hostile armies contending for the posably be attended by the most import- session of the country, to form some ant and beneficial consequences, de- rational conclusions as to the nature stroying, as they must do, root and of the operations which they are care branch, that system of monopoly, rying on. Such a digest of facts may, which enthralled the industry of na- we hope, in every view, prove useful tions, and consigned to neglect the to our readers, by saving them the most precious resources of nature, * trouble of tedious researches for ina
formation, which, with all their labour, they may not at last be able to
obtain. Chili in many parts abounds in the finest iron. But a law existed prohibit: ca occupy the vast tract of country
The Spanish possessions in Americ interfered with the import of iron from the comprised between 41° 43' of S. Lat. mother country. Upon the same princi- and 37° 48' of N. Lat. and extend a ple, wine was prohibited from being made bout 5000 miles from north to south. in Mexico.
They lie partly in North and partly in South America, and are divided About one-half of this extensive into the following general govern- country is situated within the tropics, ments, namely,
while the other half lies within the 1. The viceroyalty of Mexico.
temperate zone. It is well known, 2. The government of Guatimala. however, that the influence of geo3. The government of Porto Rico. graphical position on the climate of 4. The government of the Caraccas. any country, is modified by another 5. The viceroyalty of New Grenada, in- cause of equally powerful operation,
cluding the new kingdom of Grena. namely, the height of the ground ada and Quito.
bove the level of the sea, and that the 6. The viceroyalty of Peru.
continent of America is distinguish7. The viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres.
ed by its general and prodigious ele8. The government of Chili. 9. The government of the Havannah, in. vation ; nor does the land in Mexis cluding the Floridas.
co rise in abrupt and mountainous
ridges. On the contrary, it has been 1. Mexico, or New Spain, general- estimated, that about three-fifths of the ly designates that extensive country country is spread out in extensive plains which is bounded to the N. and S. of from 6000 to 8000 feet in height. by the 38th and 10th parallels of N. In travelling into the interior, either Lat, which, on the E. and S.E. has from Acapulco, on the coast of the the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Pacific, or from Vera Cruz on the Mexico, and on the W. is bounded eastern shore, the land rises to its by the Pacific Ocean. Among the heightgradually, and the whole country Spanish colonies, Mexico occupies un- is laid out in vast and uniform plains, doubteilly the first rank, both on ac- which, from their forming so perfect count of its great population—the a level, have received the denominanumber of considerable cities which tion of Table Land.
These plains it contains--its territorial wealth, and rise to the height of 6000 and 8000 the enormous value of its inetallic feet above the level of the surroundproduce.
ing seas, which is equal to some of the Before the introduction of the new highest summits of the Alps, such as administration of the country in 1776, Mount Cenis, St Gothard, or the great Mexico, or New Spain, was divided St Bernard. in the following manner:
From this singular form of the 1. The kingdom of Mexico.
ground, it happens, that the coasts a2. The kingdom of New Galicia. lone possess a hot climate, adapted 3. The new kingdom of Leon.
for the productions of the West In4. The colony of Santander.
dies. The mean temperature of the 5. The province of Texas.
plains which lie within the tropics, 6. The province of Cohahuila.
and which are not elevated above the 7. The province of New Biscay.
level of the sea more than 984 feet, 8. The province of Sonora.
is about 770 of Fahrenheit, or about 9. The province of New Mexico.
16° above the mean heat of Naples. 10. The Californias.
The climate of these tropical countries, These ancient divisions are still more especially in the cities, is exfrequently used in the country. At ceedingly fatal to Europeans, who are present, New Spain is divided into liable, on their first landing, to the the following twelve intendencies and terrible malady of the yellow-fever. three provinces.
The western declivity of the Cordille1. The province of New Mexico. ra of Mexico, and the shores of the 2. The intendency of New Biscay. South Sea from Acapulco, to the 3. and 4. New and Old California. ports of Colima and San Blas, are ac 5. Intendency of Sonora.
mong the hottest and most unhealthy 6. San Luis Potosi.
places in the south. The port of Aca7. Zacatecas.
pulco, more especially, is frequently 8. Guadalaxara.
fatal to visitors landing from Europe, 9. Guanaxuato. 10. Valladolid, or Mechoacan.
or to merchants who descend from the 11. Mexico.
cool and salubrious temperature of the 12. Puebla.
Table Land, to breathe the hot and 13. Vera Cruz.
tainted atmosphere of the coast. 14, Oaxaca.
On the declivity of the Andes, at 15. Merida.
the height of from 4000 to 5000 feet,