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stone, (compare chap. iv. 3, margin,) is very graphic as suggesting the similar appearance of a loaf and a stone. The words sitting at the place of toll, in Matthew ix. 9, will be understood by all; which cannot be said of the old rendering, the receipt of custom. In verse 17, the rendering new wine into old wine-skins, with its good marginal note, 'that is, skins used as bottles,' explains at once to every one a sentence which was before, without explanation, meaningless. In verse 18 the old rendering is retained, where a more accurate one would have been my daughter has just now died. But the difference is unimportant. In verse 23 the word flute-players certainly comes nearer to the sense of the Greek than does minstrels: although the instrument referred to was very different from a modern flute.

The rendering good-tidings, with gospel in the margin, in Matthew xi. 5, Luke iv. 43, viii. 1, and elsewhere, is another excellent instance of the use made of the margin to keep up a practical uniformity of rendering, with its advantages, where uniformity in the text is impracticable. As of many technical terms, the original meaning of the word Gospel, viz., good news, is apt to be overlooked. But I do not see any sufficient reason for retaining the rendering glad tidings in 1 Thessalonians iii. 6 and Romans x. 15, 16. This seems to me an adherence to the Old Version, contrasting strangely with the action of the Committee elsewhere. In Matthew xi. 11, the rendering but little in the kingdom of heaven, with lesser in the margin, is more correct than least. The literal meaning is 'he that is less than others.'

The words to God added in italics to Matthew xv. 5, instead of the old rendering it is a gift, clear up the whole verse. In this case a literal rendering is quite unmeaning,

because the original allusion is not recognised by the English reader.

The change from soul to life in Matthew xvi. 26, gain the whole world, and forfeit his life, which we fear will trouble some preachers, is needful to keep up the connexion with verse 25. And the word soul in the margin of both verses does something to reveal the true meaning of the word thus rendered. It has in each verse a double reference. Just as all earthly wealth is unworthy of being purchased at the cost of life, so there is a life worth purchasing at the cost of life. This higher life is indicated by the paradox in verse 25: whosoever shall lose his life for my sake shall find it.

The Revisers have given up in despair all attempt to bring to light the argument completely obscured by the rendering natural in the Authorised Version of 1 Corinthians xv. 44, 46, a natural body...also a spiritual body; an argument exceedingly important both in itself and in the light it casts upon the meaning of the word rendered soul or life. I cannot suggest any rendering worthy of a place in the new text: for we have no adjective at all akin to the substantive soul. But this is just one of those places in which the margin might render its most valuable service, and do much to lessen the essential imperfection of all translations, by pointing out the close connection between the adjective in question and the word soul in verse 45. The absence of all indication of this connexion is, I cannot but feel, a serious defect in the Revised Version.

No word in the Authorised Version is more liable to be misunderstood, and with serious consequences, than the words offend, offence. For these words have not only lost altogether their original significance, but have assumed a new and quite different sense. With us, to offend is

to vex, to produce ill-feeling. But Christ does not say in Matthew xviii. 6, 8, that it were better to be cast into the sea than to vex one of His little ones, and that if our hand vexes us we shall do well to cut it off. He refers to those who cause spiritual injury, and are thus a trap in which others, as they pursue their Christian course, are caught. The wrong sense conveyed by the authorised rendering of the word in question, the Revisers have removed completely.

But the new rendering, cause to stumble, occasion of stumbling, seems to me both clumsy and inaccurate. In my own translation of Romans I have used the word snare, with its cognate verb ensnare. This rendering gives, I believe, the correct sense of the Greek word, and one suitable to every passage in the New Testament in which it occurs.


Revisers are compelled to abandon their usual rendering in Romans ix. 33, where they retain the rendering rock of offence, which, to most people, has no meaning whatever. My own rendering, rock of a snare, though rather awkward, suggests a rock on which they who step are caught as in a trap. And this is, I believe, the

correct sense.

The word suffer in the sense of permit ought not, in my view, to have been retained.

In Matthew xx. 27, Romans i. 1, vi. 16, etc., against the word servant, wisely retained in the text, we have the marginal alternative bond-servant. Perhaps the plain word slave would have been still better. This note gives the true significance of the word rendered servant, a word suggesting important theological teaching; and explains the argument of 1 Corinthians vii. 21-23, he that was called in the Lord, being a bond-servant, is the Lord's

freedman. Although the service of Christ is perfect freedom, we are nevertheless not hired servants, who can justly give notice and leave His service, but are His inalienable pos


Similarly, against the same word servants in the text, we have in the margin of Matthew xxii. 13 the rendering ministers, in contrast to bond-servants in the margin of verse 6. This both distinguishes two kinds of servants in one parable and pours light on the root-meaning of the word minister.

The rendering penny a day and pence in Matthew xx. 2, xviii. 28, though explained in the margin, does not seem to me happy. Surely a shilling would better represent eightpence halfpenny than a penny does. And the rendering shilling would have been the more appropriate, because of the greater relative value of coin then than now.

The rendering robber in Matthew xxvii. 38 is more correct than thief, and is very suggestive. For it recalls at once the famous robber Barabbas, who with his companions in violence and bloodshed lay that morning in prison. One man, the chief, was set free. That on the same day two other robbers were crucified, suggests that they were the companions of Barabbas. The same rendering reveals the true significance of our Saviour's words in Matthew xxi. 13, a den of robbers; and chapter xxvi. 55, against a robber with swords and staves to seize me.

The new rendering in Mark iii. 19, Simon the Cananæan, with the excellent marginal reference to Luke vi. 15, Acts i. 13, where instead of Zelotes we have the zealot, tells us that among the apostles of Christ was one who had belonged to the fanatical Jewish sect described by Josephus.*

See his Wars IV. iii. 9.

The marginal note baptize, bap tizings, in Mark vii. 4, sheds light on the meaning of this familiar word; and suggests that it does not always imply absolute immersion. The words added in italics to Mark vii. 19, 'This he said, making all meats clean,' are in part an amended reading, and in part an amended rendering. They give a clear, and I believe correct, sense to words which before had little or no sense. The graphic and correct marginal note in Mark ix. 42, a mill-stone turned by an ass, against a great millstone in the text, is due to a better reading of the original text.

The marginal alternative sanctuary, against the word temple in the text of many passages, has much more significance than at first sight appears. It marks off two altogether different Greek words, both rendered temple in the text. The marginal The marginal note refers always to the actual building, entered only by the priests,* as in Matthew xxiii. 16-21, xxvii. 51, Luke i. 9, 21, 22, etc. Without the marginal note, as in Matthew xxi. 12-23, etc., the word temple denotes the whole sacred enclosure, where all Israelites were wont to walk. I cannot but wish, however, that the word temple had been reserved for the sacred house, and the word sanctuary, or perhaps the sacred place, used in the text for the sacred enclosure. With inexcusable inconsistency, in many important passages in the Book of Revelation, the word is left without a marginal note. In Matthew xxiii. 35, xxvii. 5, we have sanctuary in the text; and in Acts xix. 24, the rendering shrines.

Fourth Gospel are reserved for another Paper.

The word bishopric disappears from Acts i. 20, to make room for office, thus keeping up connexion with Psalm cix. 8, which is here quoted. But the old rendering might, I think, considering that in 1 Timothy iii. 1 the same Greek word is rendered office of a bishop, have claimed a place in the margin. The connexion of the two passages is, however, kept up by the marginal notes, overseership and overseer. In Acts xx. 28, we have overseers removed to the margin, with bishops in the text. All honour to the Right Reverend prelates who allowed their own august title to be given to the elders of the Ephesian church, whose ecclesiastical position must have been a complete contrast to the episcopal dignity of our day; and who gave up, without even a marginal note, another rendering (Acts i. 20) which seemed to imply that the name of bishop was borne by the apostles. In Philippians i. 1, against the word bishops, which is rightly retained in the text, the alternative rendering overseers is suitably placed in the margin.

The new rendering of Acts ii. 3 tongues parting asunder, like as of fire, with the alternatives parting among them, or distributing themselves in the margin, gives a much better description of this mysterious scene than does the old rendering cloven tongues. We must conceive a great flame, dividing itself into tongues of flame, and one of these resting upon each person present.

The new rendering of Acts xix. 13, strolling Jews, exorcists, is very happy. The intention of the slight change in verse 18 from them that believed to them that had believed, will not be at once apparent to all Several important changes in the readers. These men, as Canon

In Luke xix. 13, Trade till I come, is much better than the old rendering occupy.

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Farrar has well narrated,* had previously accepted Christianity; but nevertheless continued the secret practice of magical arts. But so great was the universal fear caused by the confusion of the sons of Sceva that these unfaithful Christians could no longer conceal themselves, and came acknowledging publicly their unworthy conduct. The excellent rendering temple-keeper of the great Diana in verse 35 reveals the unique relation to the goddess, of which the city of Ephesus was so proud. The Way instead of that way or this way in verse 23 and Acts ix. 2, shows us that this simple and beautiful term was already a common designation of the Christian path through earth to heaven. Similarly, in John i. 21, 25, the prophet is better than that prophet.

It is

The new rendering of St. Paul's words to Agrippa in Acts xxvi. 28, With but little persuasion thou wouldest fain make me a Christian, is already in every one's lips. certainly better than the old rendering. But it reproduces but poorly the astonishment and amusement which burst forth in Agrippa's satire: With a short argument thou art persuading ME, to make me a Christian!'

The new rendering of Romans i. 20, that they may be without excuse, is of immense importance, teaching that God wrote His Own Name on the open page of Nature with a definite purpose of thus taking away from all men all excuse for forgetting Him. The words rob temples in Romans ii. 22 are much more clear than commit sacrilege; and recall similar words in Acts xix. 37. In Romans iii. 9, in place of the certainly incorrect rendering are we better than they? we have the very unlikely rendering are we in worse case than they? But in the margin

we find, do we excuse ourselves? My own rendering, which I still prefer, is, Are we shielding ourselves?

The Greek word anathema is retained, to great advantage, instead of accursed, in Romans ix. 3, Galatians i. 9. The full significance of this change will appear when we have the Revised Old Testament. The word in question, already familiar to us in 1 Corinthians xvi. 22, is a technical term in the Books of the Law.

The new rendering in 1 Corinthians ix. 25, every man that striveth in the games, and in 2 Timothy ii. 5, contend in the games, rescue from utter obscurity two beautiful and forceful allusions and appeals. The word unknown, printed in italics in the authorised version of 1 Corinthians xiv. 2, 4, 13, has done much to misrepresent the matter referred to, by suggesting that the tongues were human languages unknown by those in whose presence they were spoken. The removal of the italics leaves open the way for further search into the nature of this mysterious gift.

The revised rendering of 2 Corinthians ii. 14, always leadeth us in triumph, lifts a veil which had completely obscured the significance of this glowing passage. The Apostle and his colleagues, himself once a rebel against Christ, but now driven from place to place by anxiety for the welfare of the churches of Christ, are represented as led along in triumph by the conqueror; and thus, by their presence in his triumphal train, revealing, like the captives in the Roman military triumphs, the greatness of the victory. And so complete is the victory that the captives burst into a song of praise to the conqueror in whose train, amid many hardships, they are led. It would have been better if in the very difficult passage, Colossians ii.

*Life of St. Paul. Vol. ii. p. 26.

15, the same rendering had been adopted, instead of the old version triumphing over them. For, apparently, the word triumph had other associations* besides militaryvictory, and therefore does not necessarily imply a triumph over those led in procession.

The words unveiled and veiled in the new version of 2 Corinthians iii. 18 and iv. 3 are all-important links connecting these verses with the very interesting reference in the foregoing verses to the veil over Moses' face. They thus rescue from complete obscurity an important argument and appeal. The word mirror instead of glass (as also in 1 Corinthians xiii. 12) is a clear gain. And the rendering transformed instead of changed does great service by associating this verse with Romans xii. 2, where we have the same verb in the same tense, and with Romans viii. 29 and Philippians iii. 10, 21, where we have a cognate verb. This warns us not to judge hastily that an apparently trifling change is needless; and is an example of the gain of retaining where possible for each Greek word a constant English equivalent. The same rendering The same rendering ought to have had a place at least in the margin of Matthew xvii. 2, Mark ix. 2. In 2 Cor. iii. 18, instead of beholding as in a glass, the New Version renders reflecting as a mirror, with beholding as in a mirror in the margin. That the marginal rendering is the better one, I shall elsewhere endeavour to prove conclusively. If this be so, the Revised Version is in this point further from the sense intended by the Apostle than is the Authorised Version.

Very beautiful, and correct, is the new rendering of 2 Corinthians v. 8: at home with the Lord.

The new rendering of Ephesians

ii. 21, each several building..groweth into a holy temple, suggests that now the various Churches are separate buildings, but that when the plan of the Divine Architect is worked out, these various parts, like the oncedetached portions of Cologne Cathedral, will be united into one great house of God; and that as the work of God progresses day by day the sundered portions approach this unity.

The rendering manner of life in Philippians i. 27, 1 Peter i. 15, 18, etc., and behaviour in 1 Peter iii. 1, 2, with manner of life in the margin, made needful by the change of meaning in the English word conversation found in these passages in the Authorised Version, redeems them from confusion. The new rendering of Philippians iii. 21, the body of our humiliation, instead of our vile body, removes a serious perversion of the teaching of the Apostle. The words now found in Philippians iv. 12, I have learned the secret both to be filled etc., do something to restore an important allusion. This allusion would have been still more clear if in a marginal note reference had been made to the relation between the word rendered secret and a favourite word of St. Paul anglicised into mystery, which contains, I believe, a most important allusion to the famous mysteries of ancient Greece.

As good renderings I may also mention 1 Timothy vi. 5, supposing that godliness is a way of gain; and verse 10, the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Of the old renderings, one is meaningless, the other untrue. Very pathetic and certainly correct is the new rendering of 2 Timothy iv. 6, I am already being offered, and the time of my departure is come; with an excellent

*See a very good paper by the Rev. G. G. Findlay in The Expositor, First Series, vol. x., p. 403.

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