Page images

same sense.

both the Common Translation and that is an evil, an only evil,” nnx. In of the Improved Version equally con- Zech. xiv. 9, our Common Version is, Dect it with Jehovah, of which name The Lord shall be king over all the the Greek Kupios, is the representative, earth, they are both almost equally objec In that day there shall be one Lord, cionable. Jehovah, the proper and

and his name one. peculiar name of the God of Israel, But as the intention plainly is to being an appellative, and from its na- prophesy of the authority of Jehovah ture denoting one object, would not being acknowledged, and his name hare the attribute of singleness ascrib- adored, to the exclusion of other gods, ed to it, which supposes the possibility it will certainly be a great improveof its including more than one. It

ment to render 708 as in the above would be just as rational to say, 'examples : " George our king is one George," as

And Jehovah shall be king over all the if any one could need to be informed

earth ; of his unity. The only supposition on In that day shall Jehovah be alone : which the language of the Common i.e. as king or God. Translation or Improved Version could

And his name shall be the only one: be justified is, that it was intended di

sc. which shall be reverenced and horectly to contradict the doctrine of the

noured. Trinity, which will be embraced neither by its advocates nor by those who that the translation I have adopted is

If it be allowed, as I think it must, believe it to have been first devised in a later age. There is no other passage

justifiable from the original words, of Scripture in which unity is predi- we shall not, I apprehend, find much cated of the name Jehovah, except difficulty with the ancient versions. I Zech. xiv. 9, in which I conceive the believe they all meant to convey the translation to be incorrect.

The Targum of Onkelos Dr. Geddes bas, I think, translated and the Samaritan Version are liable the words of Moses more successfully to exactly the same remarks as the than his predecessors - “ The Lord, original. The other translations inzert the Lord only is our God;" where the substantive verb at the end, from though for the sake of clearness and which it has been inferred, that they conciseness, the one is changed into took the whole to be one clause. The the adverb only, the quality of unity

Latin unus, the Greek éis, (vide belongs to the word "God, which is Schleusner in verb.) and the Syr. re, equally applicable to false as to the may all signify “only" or “one alone." frue God. The meaning is, “ Jehovah “ The Lord our God, the Lord is the is our God, Jehovah is the only God." one, or the only,” sc. God, is a just The Hebrew Lexicons, to which I have translation of the Greek, words, and access, do not indeed give to the word that this was our Lord's meaning may TIR, the sense of only or alone ; but appear, probable, from the echoing there can be little doubt of its allowa- reply of the Scribe, “Well, Master, bleness, as it is but a different appli- thou hast said the truth; for there is cation of the same idea, which is often one God; and there is no other but expressed by the same word, not only he.” The argument also drawn from in the kindred languages but in many the words, for the exclusive love of others, besides which there occur to Jehovah, is plainly directed against the me some instances in justification of worship of many gods. it. Job xxiii. 13: Tnxa x101,

On the whole, there is a material he is the only one,” i. e. the Supreme difference between the propositions, God (vide Dathe in loc.); or, perhaps, “ There is one God," and " God is

though he be alone, who can hinder one." The former is opposed to the him?" Song of Solomon vi. 9: "This opinions and practices of Pagans, and my dove, my most excellent is alone,” is a simple and important truth-the nñs, unrivalled in beauty-above all latter must appear a mere truisnı, the queen's concubines and virgins unless in reference to the doctrine of spoken of in the preceding verse. “She the Trinity, which all who disbelieve it is the only one (nnn) of her mother, hold to have arisen much too late to the most beloved of her parent.” be directly contradicted in Scripture ; (Datbe in loc.) Ezech. vii. 5: "There but, as in the text under our conside


ration," the Lord” is the representa- following fact,” for which he thus tive of the proper name Jehornh, quotes “Smollett's History of Enwhich was never used but of the true gland, Vol. XIII. p. 319:” God, and which is as much an appel

“ The Scottish Commissioners who Jative as Moses, Isaiah or Jesus; the came up to make a tender of their crown unity of the Lord is still more obvi. (anno 1689) to King William, (and who ously a self-evident proposition, and were, the Earl of Argyle for the Lords, the design must have been to assert Sir James Montgomery for the Knights, that he is the only God, in opposition and Sir Johu Dalrymple for the Boroughs,) to the clains of all other pretended being iutroduced to their Majesties at deities, and is, therefore, entitled to Whitehall, presented first a preparatory the whole of the religious affections of Letter from the Estates, then the Instruall his creatures—to express which ment of Goverament, with a paper consense we must render the words, “The taining a recital of the grievances of the Lord our God, the Lord is the only jesty to convert the Convention into a

nation, and an Address desiring his Ma. God;" or, if we please, in two clauses: Parliament. The King having graciously “ The Lord is our God; the Lord is promised to concur with them in all just the only God.

measures for the interest of the kingdom, W. HINCKS.

the coronation-oath was tendered to their

Majesties by the Earl Argyle. As it conClapton, tained a cause, importing, that they

Jan. 19, 1822. should root out heresy, the King declared, OBSERVED

very lately, that Mr. that he did not mean by these words, lications, had adopted, from a modern act as a persecutor. The Commissioners historian, what appears to me to have replying, that such was not the meaning been an erroneous, though common and others present, to bear witness to the

or import of the nath, he desired them, opinion, respecting William III. Un

exception he had made." der this impression he represents that prince as favourable to religious liber Mr. Lindsey is confirmed in the ty, more justly described as the civil opinion of King Williain's liberality right of all, publicly to profess their by Burnets remark, (0. T. 1689, Foi. religious opinions, however differing Il. 24,) that " when the King and from the conclusions of the learned Queen took the oaths, the king exand the inquiring, or from the creeds plained one word in the oath, by taught by the priest and the nurse" which he was bound to repress hereto that unreflecting multitude, the sies, that he did not by this bind himgreat and small vulgar.

self to persecute any for their conI refer to Mr. Lindsey's "Historical science." There remains, however, a View of the State of the Unitarian higher authority on this subject, pubDoctrine,” published in 1783. At lished in 1697, eight years before Burp. 303, my eminently candid friend, net wrote, and in a work compiled * still pleased to praise” whenever he expressly in honour of the king, could praise conscientiously, repeats The small volume to which I refer, Mr. Einlyn’s sentiment, that “King is called in the head lines, " The Royal William was not willing to be made Almanack,” and thus entitled, “ Fasti a persecutor,” though “this great Gulielmi Tertii; or, an Account of prince suffered himself to be prevailed the most memorable Actions transactupon to pass an act” against Unita- ed during his Majesty's Life, both berians. This was the Act of 1698, fore and since his Accession to the professing “the effectual suppression Crown: with the Days, Months and of blasphemy and profaneness,” but Years wherein the same hapned.” really designing to forbid the publica- Under the date of May 11, 1689, there tion of their opinions, to all who should is an account of the introduction of impugn, however seriously, the Divine the Commissioners from the Scottish authority of the Scriptures, or deny that Convention to the King and Queen, they contained the doctrine of a Tri- at the Banqueting-house, Whitehall

. nity. Mr. Lindsey sustains his opi- The King informs the Commissioners, nion “that the king yielded to pass that when he projected the expedition this Act with reluctance, and through into England, he “had a particular the necessity of the times, from the regard and consideration for Scotland."?

Probably, according to a recent in- hypocrisy, the heads or the hearts, of stance of royal abundance, he had a our State-Christians. Yet, according Dutch, an English, a Scottish, if not to King William's definition of persean Irish heart. Then, after detailing cution, which forms a fine illustration, the ceremony of tendering the corona- by contrast, of an Apostle's "royal law, tion oath, as described by Smollett, according to the Scripture,” though he the Almanack thus proceeds : engaged, by the solemnity of an oath,

“But when the Earl came to this part to denounce, as rebels, all whom the of the said oath, "And we shall be careful Kirk should declare to be heretics ; to to root out all heretics and enemies of the expatriate them by an outlawry, and true worship of God, that shall be con- to beggar them, with their families, victed by the true Kirk of God, of the by a confiscation; yet, after inflicting aforesaid crimes, out of our lands and these sufferings, he was not to "be. empire of Scotland,' the King declared

come a persecutor” unless he had that he did not mean by these words that persecuted a man “ for his private be was under any obligation to become a opinion.” Such a folly, whatever a persecutor. To which the Commissioners, crowned head might expect to accombeing authorized by the States of Scotland, made answer, that neither the meaning plish, an Inquisitor, I am persuaded, of the oath, or the law of Scotland, did

never attempted; convinced, however import it, since by the said law no man reluctantly, that the wary possessor of was to be persecuted for his private opi- a private opinion might fearlessly defy nion, and that even obstinate and con- him to “take vengeance on the mind. victed heretics were only to be denounced Beheld on the homely page of the rebels or out-lawed, whereby their move mere annalist, and not as adorned by an able estates were confiscated. Whereupon historian's flattering pencil, William the king declared again, that he took III. was little more than a soldier of the oath in that sense, and called for fortune, till he received, from a gratewituesses, the Commissiouers and others ful nation, the crown of England, a present,"

munificent reward for having driven In a “Preface to the third edition” away his justly despised and deserted of his Pastoral Care, written (1713) in father-in-law. A passage of an earlier his 70th year, Burnet remarks that date in “the Royal Almanack,” disco“the breaches on a man's liberty or vers, that, like other soldiers, he could goods, are as really persecution, as employ the argument of force in other that which strikes at his person. They places besides the field of battle, and may be, in some instances, more un that he had landed in England suffieasy; as a single death is not so for- ciently prepared to “become a persemidable, as to be forced to live undercutor.” At the same time it is morgreat necessities, perhaps with a nu- tifying to see, in the author of the merous family.” He adds, that, “if Pústoral Care, a political priest, or we judge of this matter by our Savi- rather an avant-courier of military our's rule, of doing to others what we outrage ; while the extraordinary scene, would have others do to us, our con as I had occasion to remark in anosciences would soon decide the ques- ther place, exhibits the distressing di. tion; if we will but honestly ask our- lemma of an established clergy placed selves how we would have those of between a royal authority, to which another religion deal with us, if we they had vowed obedience, and the were living in countries where we must law of the sword which answered their depart from the legal establislıment, just plea of conscience with the old if we do truly follow the dictates of conclusive argument væ victis. “The ou conscience.”

Royal Almanack,” after relating, I beg leave to recommend these last “ Nov. 8, 1688," that “the Prince of thoughts of one who had witnessed so Orange made a very splendid entry much pretended liberality and real in- into Exeter with his army,” thus disjustice, to any of your readers, if one plays (p. 254) the “ little triumphs” can get be found among them, who which immediately succeeded : would leave to the magistrate a cure “ Nov. 9, 1688, Dr. Burnet was sent of souls, or who can contemplate such to the Cathedral of Exeter to order the wrongs as those legally and judicially priest and vicars not to pray for the inflicted on the Carlile family, without pretended Prince of Wales; and the same blushing for the ignorance or the day his Highness went to the said Cathe

[ocr errors]


dral, and was present at the singing Te Such then was my excellent friend's Deum, after which his declaration was "great prince,” and Dr. Watts's “man publicly read to the people; but I must of wondrous soul ;", or, rather, the observe that the ministers rushed out of grateful Nonconformist poet's auspithe Church by a very surprising piece of cious numen; or, at least, “the Mopolicy."

narch” that could “be shewn
Thus “the hero William” opened Under no shape but angels' or his
the campaign of 1688, by routing
“the priest and vicars” of the cathe Gabriel, or William, on the British -
dral of Exeter, “white, black and grey,

with all their trumpery,” the Bishop a bathos, which reminds me of
and the Dean having fled, as "the hire-

Dalhousie, the great God of ling fleeth,” the day before. Yet what

War, ever might be the judgment of a priest, Lieutenant-Colonel to the Earl of Marr.” a prince and a soldier, here was surely a gross instance of persecution, ac

It might almost be suspected, that cording to the common opinions and

our orthodox Protestant grandsires feelings of inankind, and such a man

were disposed to restore the hero-wor! as Burnet appears poorly employed ship of Paganism, in honour of any on such a mission. He well knew king who would persecute only Pa that James, though now trembling on pists and heretical Nonconformists. a precarious throne, was still as legally in wonder, love and praise," whenever

Thus they appear to have been “ lost king as any of his predecessors; and that all “priests and vicars,” including of a Dutch Stadtholder; in accepting

they contemplated the condescension himself, yet owed him, according to their most solemn engagements, an

a British crown. Their descendants, unreserved obedience, as Supreme

under the tuition of passing events, Head of the Church of England, and and the advantages of a more liberal were bound" to pray, according to political education, have learned to the Liturgy, that God would be the distinguish between the real merits of defender and keeper of King James, the man, and the national advantages and give him victory over all his ene

acquired, though by no means cheaply, mies." He knew too, that these from the successful enterprise of the “priests and vicars” were under pe petty prince and valiant soldier, in remptory orders to pray for the Prince whom the ambition would be easily of Wales, without being allowed to excited, to possess the splendid regainterpose a question as to his legiti- lities and to wield the military enermacy.

gies of a powerful kingdom. And, The legitimacy of James III. has, indeed, whatever constitutional policy indeed, long ceased to be a question may dictate towards the living, it is with any impartial inquirer ; yet it no part of historical justice to the should be allowed to 'Burnet, that dead, to incur the charge of folly, he implicitly believed the revolution brought even by a courtly poet, tales which he has collected in his against those who History. I observe, also, in a “Me “drop the man in their account, morial to the Princess Sophia,” print. And vote the mantle into Majesty." ed in 1815, from his Ms. in 1703,

Mr. Lindsey, in the passage which that he expresses the same confidence in the now exploded political fable

. produced these observations, has reThus having related the imprisonment 374). There, in Remarks on “The

ferred to Mr. Einlyn's Works (II. of the seven Bishops, he adds, (p. 57,) four London Ministers,” authors of “ 'The Queen in the mean time was, "The Doctrine of the blessed Trinity as was pretended, delivered of a son stated and defended,” they are reat St. James's, the Princess Ann being minded that “ King William was not sent industriously out of the way, to willing to be made a persecutor, bathe. We had, I remember, a song though the Dissenters lay hard at upon it at the time, that

him, in their address by Dr. Bates, to The Bishops were sent to the Tow'r, stop the press, anno 1697.It is

The Princess went down to the bath, probably to this attempt, which CaAnd the Queen she cried out in an hour,” lamy, I perceive, in his additions to

Barter, has not ventured to notice, that upon," but could, on other occasions, Mr. Elwall refers in his “ Declaration freely exercise his prerogative, by obagainst all the Kings and temporal jecting to comply with addresses, or Powers under Heaven.". I quote his to pass bills presented by the Parliathird edition, 1734, pp. 16, 17. He is ment, sufficiently appears from vathere addressing Geo. II., whom he had rious transactions of his reign. In challenged "out into James's Park,” 1692, he refused the royal assent to a to settle the question of Christian free- “Bill for frequent Parliaments ;" in don from civil controul, not bringing 1693, to “a Place-Bill ;” and in 1694, his “ ugly carnal sword” but “pure to “ a Bill for free and impartial Prospiritual weapons.". To his "royal ceedings in Parliament;" facts which friend," his “Lord and King in all justify Mrs. Macaulay's remark, in temporal things,” Elwall says: her Letters, on “the History of En

gland,” (1779, p. 144, “ that the en" Thy great predecessor King William, larging civil liberty was not the errand the glorious William, when the priests for which William undertook so hahere, joined by some Dissenters too, solicited him to persecute the Socinians, a

zardous and expensive an enterprise people that began to see a few of those

as the invasion of England.” moustrous doctrines of trinity, transub Nor, among the royal refusals, can stantiation, absolute election and repro- it be easily forgotten that King Wilbation, infinite satisfaction, imputed righ. liam, “not willing to be inade a perteousness, making the Most High God, the secutor," determined to suppress the boly One of Israel, to be a plurality of inquiries urged by the justly indignant persons, and making God to have a cou- Scottish Parliament, respecting the ple of equals (and some more such jar. barbarous massacre of Glencoe. Burgou as above); but his generous soul, that net acknowledges, (0. T. II. 156,) had breathed in a freer air, gave them that “the King seemed too remiss in swer, That he would not do the priests inquiring into it;" and, (ibid. 162,)

that “the libellers" (as the exposers drudgery."

of “ wickedness in high places” are Unfortunately for these fine speeches, generally described by courtiers of attributed to King William with “sim- various moral temperament, from Bur. plicity and godly sincerity,” by a tri- net down to Londonderry) were furumvirate of exemplary Christian con- nished with some colours in aspersing fessors, before whom too many “names the King, as if he must have been of awe and distance here" will, at least, willing to suffer it to be executed, hereafter “rank with common men;" since he seemed so unwilling to let it a plain tale in suflicient to put them be punished.” down. We read, “Feb. 17, 1698," Some of your readers can look back, of "an address of the Commons” to not without pensively-pleasing recolthe King “ for suppressing all perni- lections, to a period, when “the glocious books and pamphlets containing rious and immortal memory of King doctrines against the Holy Trinity, William” was annually celebrated by and other fundamental articles of faith, the most enlightened friends of liberty and for punishing the authors and and of human kind. Should those publishers.” We next learn the con- readers, or any others be prepared and duct of this prince who “was not wil. inclined to shew that I have ill-appreling to be made a persecutor,” or to ciated the King's character, and espe" do the priests' drudgery.' After cially that he deserved the commendaa week's consideration, “ Feb. 24, a tion of such men as Emlyn, Elwall proclamation was issued accordingly;" and Lindsey, I shall thank them for then follows, “An Act for the more an opportunity of correcting my judgeffectually suppressing Blasphemy and ment, on a question of some importProfaneness," inflicting on all Ünita- ance in the British History. piane, as well as Unbelievers, who

J. T. RUTT. were not content to enjoy their “private opinion,” the penalties of inspri

February 2. sonment and confiscation. ( Chron. P.S. Since I concluded this letter I Hist. 1. 291, 292.)

have observed, in “ The History of That William ill. had not always King William 111.,” 1702, (p. 240,) suffered himself to be prevailed the following confirmation of Burnet's


« PreviousContinue »